Gardening

Ecological remedies for 12 very common diseases and parasites in the garden

Plant diseases. The appearance of parasites or diseases in a healthy plant is usually caused by poor growing conditions. To cite an example, the lack of water or light reduces its vigor and growth, making it more vulnerable to attack by parasites or diseases.

That is why it is convenient to inspect it periodically, schedule crop rotations , etc. in order to detect the presence of a parasite or a disease immediately and to be able to eliminate it in time.

Types of parasites

  • ALEURODES OR WHITE FLY

Description: It is a white insect 2 to 3 mm long, very visible on the underside of the leaves where it lives in colonies and lays its tiny eggs. It sucks the contents of the leaf cells and secretes a sweet, slimy substance.

Favorable environments: It usually occurs especially in hot and dry places.

Damage caused: Causes yellowing and subsequent fall of the leaves.

Preventive treatment: inspect the underside of the leaves from time to time and spray regularly with water in hot and dry seasons. It is also very useful to plant rosemary and wormwood which acts as a repellent.

Healing treatment: An excellent ecological remedy is to prepare a nettle preparation, here you have more details .

  • RED SPIDER

Description: it is a tiny parasite, difficult to detect with the naked eye, that lives in colonies on both sides of the leaves. When they are numerous, a cloth is formed under the leaves.

Favorable environments: especially hot and dry environments.

Damage you cause: this sucking arachnid causes the appearance of light green spots, which then turn yellow; they are actually emptied cells. Then the leaf falls and the growth of the plant is retarded.

Preventive treatment: the spider mite rejects humid environments so we will vaporize periodically to create a cool and humid environment that is not conducive to its development.

Healing treatment: easily removed with potash soap .

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  • CATERPILLAR

 Description: the caterpillars of green insects measure 2 to 3 cm and although they rarely attack indoor plants , they can appear in specimens that have spent the summer outdoors.

Damage caused: they mainly eat the edges of the leaves, but they also attack the stems and the neck. Its action slows the growth of the plant, leaving it without leaves and causing its gradual deterioration.

Preventive treatment: periodically monitor the plants

Curative treatment: we will remove the visible caterpillars by hand and additionally use this preparation with Mugwort: stems and flowers of mugwort are used: It is a dose of 150g of fresh plant or 15g of dried plant in 1L of water. Prepare a 12-day slurry and dilute 20%. Spraying should be done in spring.

  • Mealy Cochineal Cochineal

Description: it is an oval sucking insect, covered with a white fluff. It measures 2 mm and is located mainly on the stems and leaves of plants .

Damage caused: It causes the yellowing of the foliage and its gradual deterioration.

Preventive treatment: observation.

Curative treatment: We will clean the visible spots with a cloth and apply oregano: Make an infusion with 1 tablespoon of dried oregano in 1 l of boiling water, let it cool and strain. Wet the whole plant well, or also   potash soap .

 

  • Nematodes

 Description: they are worms difficult to detect with the naked eye, because they mainly attack the roots, but they also affect the stems and leaves.

Damage caused: the plants are weakened and its foliage takes on a brown and dry color. Its presence in the roots causes bumps to appear.

Preventive treatment: it is essential to use a clean and disinfected mulch in transplants. Also planting calendula or garlic nearby repels them.

Healing treatment: this garlic solution is very effective

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  • Aphid

 Description: it is a 3 mm green, black or yellow-orange sucking insect that spreads rapidly, forming well-visible colonies on the underside of leaves, on young shoots or on flower buds. It secretes a sweet, slimy substance that ants feed on and on which sooty mold grows.

Damage caused: it causes the yellowing of the foliage and its gradual deterioration.

Preventive treatment: carefully monitor the foliage; a mild attack is easy to stop.

Favorable environments: aphids occur more frequently in hot and humid environments.

Damage caused: the foliage turns yellow; leaves and stems are deformed.

Preventive treatment: observation to detect the first symptoms.

Curative treatment: we can eliminate the important foci with a cloth or a strong jet of water. Also here are 10 remedies to avoid and combat aphids

Types of diseases

  • BOTRYTIS OR GRAY ROT

Description and damage caused: It is a cryptogamic disease that affects leaves, stems and flowers, covering them with a gray and downy mold that develops very quickly.

Favorable environments: this fungus prefers moist and cool places. It appears as a consequence of excessive watering, poor ventilation or too low temperatures.

Preventive treatment: adapt the irrigation to the needs of the plants , and do not vaporize the foliage in periods of low temperature.

Curative treatment: if the plant is very attacked, you will have to tear off the damaged leaves, reduce watering and ventilate the plant well.

 

  • FUMAGINE OR BLACK

Description: it is a fungus that develops on the sweet and viscous secretions of aphids and mealybugs.

Damage caused: a blackish crust, similar to soot, appears on the obverse of the leaves and on the stems, which retards the growth of the plant and suffocates the leaves.

Preventive treatment: first of all, it is essential to combat insects that secrete sweet and viscous substances.

Curative treatment: in severe cases, we will wash the leaves with warm water, carefully, and apply an ecological remedy that eliminates aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies.

 

  • VIRAL AND BACTERIAL DISEASES

Description and damage caused: they are caused by microscopic organisms that generate more or less irregular spots, deform leaves and stems, and stop plant growth. Stem rot and neck growth are generally bacterial in origin.

 

  • EARNESS OR MILDIÚ

Description and damage caused: it is a cryptogamic disease that attacks young leaves, shoots or flowers, covering them with whitish and dusty spots that in turn consume and weaken the plant.

Favorable environments: it develops especially in hot and humid environments, observing its appearance after too frequent vaporizations.

Preventive treatment: it is preferable to remove the affected leaves as soon as the first spots appear. In addition, it is advisable to reduce watering, periodically ventilate the place and not spray the foliage with water.

Curative treatment: apply an ecological fungicide several times, you have this one made of garlic , nettle , etc.

 

  • RUST

Description and damage caused: this disease preferentially attacks the back of leaves and stems. The affected parts are covered with brown spots and then fall, causing the gradual deterioration of our plant.

 Favorable environments: it occurs in humid places. It appears as a sequel to excessive watering or too frequent vaporizations .

Preventive treatment: for an early detection of the disease, it is advisable to carefully observe the reverse of the leaves of sensitive plants . As soon as the first spots appear, it is recommended to remove the affected leaves, reduce watering and air the environment regularly.

Curative treatment: fungicide must be applied, horsetail preparations are very effective.

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