Gardening

Ecological treatments against aphids, whitefly, red spider, mealybugs and other pests

Once the plague or fungal attack is located, you can start with repulsive treatments (many insects and parasites locate plants by their smell, the plants used as repellants mislead the parasites).
If the presence continues, natural insecticidal and fungicidal preparations can be applied . And if they still persist, you can use biological insecticides, such as neem (or neem) or Bacillus thuringiensis.
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Aphids

They appear at times of greatest vegetative development and when a lot of nitrogen is provided.
The first symptom is the deformation of the new leaves that grow. Afterwards, they are covered with a sticky texture, the honeydew secreted by aphids, which constitute an excellent transmitter of black mold, especially in humid environments. The aphids lay eggs on the logs that can remain in the whole winter. As a preventive treatment we can apply hydroalcoholic propolis solution in winter, and control the nitrogen supply to our plants. There are many types of aphids, the main three being the woolly aphid, the green aphid and the black aphid.
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Some combative treatments that can be applied in case of aphid infestation:
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-Spray the plants with soapy water (neutral soap diluted in water).
-Spray with the water where the potatoes have been cooked.

-Spray with infusion of absinthe (repulsive) (100g of absinthe per liter of water and then dilute to 20%). If the plague persists with this treatment, apply a garlic preparation. This treatment is done by chopping 100 gr. of peeled garlic cloves, then marinate in two tablespoons of olive oil for 12 hours. Pour a liter of water and then strain, pressing over a fine sieve. Let it rest for a week. Then dilute to 5%.

-Spray with a rhubarb maceration (repulsive). To do this, we let 500 gr. of leaves, without stems, in 3 l. of water, for 24 hours. 3 treatments are applied in 3 days.

-Spray with decoction of consuela (repulsive).
-Against the green aphid of the rose bushes: spray with a pure decoction of ivy (100 gr. In a liter of water). Disgusting treatment.
-Against the woolly aphid of fruit trees is: spray with a common or male fern slurry (1 kg. Fresh leaves in 10 l. Of water, 100%) or rhubarb maceration. Disgusting treatment.
-Use ecological insecticides such as pelitre, rotenone, potash soap (dissolve 250-300 gr. Of potassium soap in 10 l of water) or neem extract. Apply the treatment in the late afternoon.
-Aluminum foil or mirrors can be placed on the ground next to the neck of the plants, to increase the insolation to the plant, which bothers the aphids and dehydrates them due to excess radiation.
-Remove the affected plants.
-Sprinkle plants with rock or seaweed dust (Lithothamne); By absorbing water and closing their pores, aphids become dehydrated and suffocate.
-Biological fight with ladybugs, a single one during its 20 days of life devours between 350 and 400 aphids.
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WHITE FLY

It forms colonies on the underside of the leaves and they feed by sucking the sap from the leaves, which turn yellowish and end up drying and falling. The honeydew exuded by the whitefly can cause the appearance of fungi. The presence of a whitefly is not important, only in large colonies should it be considered a problem.
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Some treatments:
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-Physical traps: yellow plastic bands smeared in cooking oil are placed. The whitefly is attracted to the yellow color and becomes trapped in the oil. Also valid for trips.
-Spray the underside of the leaves (where the whiteflies are housed) with diluted potassium soap (1% is enough).
-Spray with a rue maceration (80gr. Of plant / l. Of water), diluted to 20%, then dilute to 20%. Caution in the application, since rue can cause dermatitis.
-Purín de rue and pelitre. The slurry is prepared separately and then mixed, diluting it to 10%. Very effective shock treatment.
-Spray with a decoction of consoles.
-Spray with pure tansy slurry (100%): the slurry is made with the whole plant at the time of flowering at a rate of 1 kg. of plant for every 10 l. of water. Inhibits whitefly egg laying.
-Sprinkle the plants with algae dust or rock dust.
-Remove and burn the attacked plants.
-Apply neem oil.
-Protect the neck of the plants with a cardboard or plastic disk and remove after laying the eggs, eliminating them.
-Biological fight, release of the parasitic wasp Encarsia Formosa.
-Plant Chinese carnations, marigolds or ornamental tobacco, as they scare away the white fly.
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WASPS

 Place a wide container with a narrow mouth (bottle) filled with a sweet solution (water with honey, sugar or ice cream). The wasp enters and then does not know how to get out.
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ALACRÁN ONION OR GRILLOTOPO

 Attack the roots of young plants or cut their stems at the base. It also feeds on worms, earthworms, ants, and tubers. As a preventive technique, physical traps can be prepared from autumn. Holes 10 cm deep are made, filled with horse manure and covered with tiles. The scorpion will take refuge there, attracted by the decomposing matter. During the winter until spring, the traps are discovered, eliminating the insects and trapped there.
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Some treatments:
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-At dusk, place baits of bran, sugar or condensed milk, water and a vegetable insecticide. This bait also works for gray worms and other worms that hide in the ground.

-In the spring, bury cans at ground level with the essence of turpentine and some fresh manure or half filled with water, the scorpion falls and drowns.

-You can follow the galleries and find the vertical wells which is where they take refuge, keep in mind that they usually hide at a depth of about 25 cm. The hole can also be flooded with water and an insecticide such as rotenone or pyrethrum.
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RED SPIDER AND YELLOW SPIDER

They are mites that measure 0.5 mm and live in large colonies on the underside of leaves. They form a kind of gray felt under the leaves on which they feed. The leaves are covered with spots, gradually yellowing and eventually drying out. They like heat and dryness, so as a preventive action you have to keep the soil moist, but not excessively. In indoor plants we will provide moisture by spraying them twice a week. The padding also favors the retention of moisture in the floor.
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Some application treatments:
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-Spray with absinthe slurry (1 kg of fresh plant in 10 liters of water), nettle (1 kg of fresh plant in 10 liters of water or horsetail (200 grams of dried horsetail in 10 liters of water).
-If the plague persists, a natural insecticide based on pelitre will be used, applying it on the underside of the leaves, since that is where the spider is housed.
-You can apply powdered sulfur or wettable sulfur on the underside of the sheet.
-Apply cold water jets under direct sunlight.
–Release Phytoseulis persimilis. Red spider predatory mite.
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PIGS

Mealybugs are easily identified because, although there are many types, their shape is very characteristic: they look like scales that adhere to the stems of plants, and especially to the underside of leaves, as if they were limpets. All secrete wax and some a sugary liquid, causing damage such as a gradual decrease in vitality, discoloration of the attacked area, loss of leaves.
It is one of the most frequent pests, especially in indoor plants, because dry air is their main breeding ground.
As preventive techniques, it is advisable to increase the humidity in indoor plants. Outdoors it is interesting to plant hedges with abundant blooms that attract natural predators of mealybugs, such as hymenoptera attracted by umbelliferous (fennel, celery, carrot), or rosaceae (cherry trees, rose bushes …).
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There are many types of mealybugs but we will highlight:
* Cottony mealybug: it is the most characteristic of indoor plants, cacti and succulents. They secrete a white, fuzzy, waxy substance under which they hide their eggs, making attacked plants sticky and prone to developing black mold.
* Shield mealybug: attacks a large number of ornamental plants. In their adult state, the scales are covered with a dark brown carapace and are about 4 mm in diameter, which allows them to be easily detected. They tend to concentrate on the underside of the leaves and on the stems, and secrete a viscous liquid, which leaves the upper part of the leaves underneath sticky, which soon develop a black mold.
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Some treatments:
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-Remove the bulbs with the help of a brush in May – June and spray with oregano infusion.
-Use insecticidal soap (bioleat) in the first generation.
-Free the predator Metaphycus helvolus.
-Treat with neem oil: their eggs become infected with fungi after the females have fed on leaves treated with this product.
-Spray with fern slurry.
-In case of large infestations:
1) Paraffinic or vegetable oil or sodium silicate in May-June
2) Mineral oil in August
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Nematodes

 They are microscopic worms that parasitize the roots, stunting them, preventing the plant from being nourished. In gardening and organic farming, nematodes generally do not create problems because soil fungi and root substances emitted by plants limit their proliferation. There are preventive actions that serve both to avoid worms and nematodes: make rotations as wide as possible, avoid excess nitrogen and burn infected plants, do not compost them.
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Some treatments:
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-Planting tagetes (Tagetes nana) interspersed between the crops. The secretions of this plant favor that the nematodes hatch from the egg, but since they cannot feed on this plant, the larvae die.

-If the land is full of nematodes, green manure plantations can be made.

-Spray with preparations based on nicotine, horsetail, nettle, lithomane (seaweed) or vegetable compost.
-Apply pelitre, rotenone or neem oil.
-As an extreme measure, solarization. The soil is watered and subsequently covered with transparent plastic.
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WIRE WORMS

Very bright yellow worms that feed on decaying organic matter and attack the roots and underground stems of many plants, especially recently transplanted ones, holm oaks, acacias and fruit trees. They abound in warm soils, in which fresh organic matter has been incorporated. Physical traps can be prepared by burying 2 cm thick carrot or potato slices close to the plant.
In the morning the traps are set up and the worms housed there are collected.
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Other treatments:
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-Encourage the presence of moles, tawny owls and shrews.
-Make a hole in the ground, put a pot with vermiculite and a small closed bag with wheat and corn for 10 days. When they germinate they release CO2 and attract wireworms, the pot must be covered well.
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GRAY WORMS

They live hidden in the ground, they attack the stems, leaves and necks of the youngest and most tender plants, especially those that have just been transplanted. They proliferate when there is organic matter in the soil without decomposing it. They are treated by often digging around the plant, digging up and collecting the larvae during the fall and winter as they hibernate in the ground. Some lettuce leaves serve as a lure.
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Other treatments:
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-During the day they hide underground, between 1 and 3 cm deep, so you have to look for them by digging next to the plant that appears with damage.
-Apply Bacillus thuringiensis to the soil and to the attacked plants.
-Make a bait based on bran, sugar and Bacillus thuringiensis powder diluted in water. Spread it at the foot of the plant in the evening.
-Roll a cardboard four fingers wide to the seedlings. It is necessary to bury at least 2 cm. ground.
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CARPOCAPSA OR AGUSANADO OF THE FRUITS .

 The carpocapsa is the insect that causes the most damage in fruit trees, mainly in apple trees. It is a small butterfly of night life and twilight. Winters in a chrysalis state shallow to the ground; it also hides in cracks in crusts and walls and even in boxes where apples are stored. In good weather, the chrysalis develop into adults and the females lay their eggs on the leaves of the highest branches of the tree.
The caterpillars will feed on the apples, opening a gallery to go to the center in search of the seeds, the main food of the carpocapsa. The fruit matures in advance causing its premature fall, after which the caterpillar hides in the ground, repeating the cycle.
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Some preventive actions are:
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-Allow the access of chickens under the trees, their incessant pecking removes the chrysalis from the ground.
-Rapidly remove the fallen fruit.
-Protection and physical traps: smear the trunk and the main branches with a preparation based on clay, ash and cow manure and place traps.
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Some treatments to fight carpocapsa:
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-Wormwood Purin
-Tanaceto infusion
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CABBAGE CATERPILLAR

 These leaves devour the leaves of the cabbages. As preventive techniques we can plant mint, rosemary, sage, wormwood or thyme among the cabbage plants.
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Some treatments:
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-Place traps and special containers to capture cabbage butterflies.
-Look for the eggs of the caterpillars on the underside of the cabbage leaves and crush them. The laying period usually ranges from April to June.
-In severe cases resort to plant insecticides such as pelitre, rotenone, Bacillus thuringiensis …

-Repel adults by applying fern decoction or an infusion of wormwood (100gr / l) around the plant. Employ pure in the afternoon.

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POTATO BEETLE

 It attacks the eggplant and the potato.
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Some treatments:
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-Eliminate insect and leaves where there are eggs. The eggs are a deep orange-yellow color.
-Apply pelitre or Bacillus thuringiensis.
-Plant aubergines between the potatoes, since the beetle prefers aubergines, and once there you can catch and eliminate them.
-Sprinkle the plants with algae dust or rock dust.
-Planting chamomile between the potatoes
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SLUG AND SNAIL

Physical traps can be prepared. Lids of coffee jars or cans cut in half full of beer are buried at ground level. Snails and slugs are attracted to the strong smell and fall into the beer.
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ANTS

Fruits of paradise (Melia Azedarach) are crushed and macerated in water for 15 days. The result is a ferment that, when spread on the ground, is ant repellent. It should be kept away from children. You can also mix white pepper and water in equal parts, spray and paint the trunks of the plants.
Another solution is to make an infusion of 300 gr. of fresh lavender leaves with a liter of water and spray. You can also make a slurry of oak leaves (Quercus robus, ilex or palustris) and spray on the attacked plants.
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DOGS AND CATS

If we do not want our dogs and cats to bite the plants in the garden or terrace, we will spray ground cayenne and hot pepper: In a glass, put a handful of cayenne and another of peppercorns with little water and stir. Dilute in two liters of water and spray approximately every 15 days. Until our pets no longer come near. P. Environmental Activities CM

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