Gardening

How to make grafts to increase the productivity of the garden?

Grafting plants is one of the most effective ways to increase the productivity of trees and shrubs.

By grafting you will get more fruits in the garden without the need to plant new seeds. You just need to look at the plants you already have to see which ones you are interested in taking advantage of and in what way.

Hard? Nothing of that. Grafting requires a bit of skill, but it is a very common and common activity within the reach of any farmer and garden enthusiast. With paying attention and practicing a little, you will see results very quickly.

Here we teach you the basics of this technique. What does it consist of and how is it done?

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We also advise you which organic seeds to use , the best planters, growing boxes and tables for your garden and essential books to learn everything about organic gardening .

What is a graft?

Through this technique , a portion of a plant , the so-called variety or graft itself, is attached to the body of another , the pattern or foot.

It is usually carried out on woody plants, such as trees and shrubs, often fruit trees. But what need is there? Why go to the trouble?

what is a graft

Generally, grafting is practiced to take advantage of the virtues of both plants and improve or enhance productivity .

Any of these circumstances are taken into account:

  • To preserve the characteristics of the plant

If we are very interested in a plant because of its characteristics, it is normal to want to replicate it.

With the graft we can take a part of that plant and multiply it without the need for seeds. So we can clone the plant we like and benefit from its characteristics in duplicate.

  • For taking advantage of the mature roots

If the master plant is more mature, it will have a better developed root system than a young plant and will push more sap.

If we join a young graft, it will benefit from these nutrients and will be productive much sooner.

  • By the adaptability of the pattern

It is common that species patterns are chosen better adapted to the characteristics of the soil, available water and local diseases than the plants to be grafted. Why not take advantage of their stamina?

  • By shortening the ripening time

Fruit trees can take years to bear fruit. If we graft a branch from a productive mature tree into a young stock, we will have a complete tree that can bear fruit in the following year.

  • To be able to pollinate

Plants that reproduce by cross pollination need a male and a female plant. What happens if we only have one solitary plant in our garden?

Very easy: you find a graft of the other sex and insert it into your tree. And you have a plant with male and female branches to be able to self-fertilize and bear fruit.

With all these reasons, it is normal that grafting is a common practice in agriculture. How do you do it?

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How to make grafts in the garden or garden?

Except in exceptional cases, you can only graft plants of the same genus (such as two different types of apple trees) or, sometimes, of the same family (such as apple and pear, tomato and potato, lemon and orange …).

The reason is that the success of the graft lies in putting in contact the so-called cambium , a layer located under the bark. This internal structure changes from one species to another, so it is necessary to look for the most similar ones.

It is the way to ensure that the parts fuse, the bark closes and the sap travels through the internal tissue without interruptions to feed the graft.

Read: How to Prevent and Treat the Most Common Pests and Diseases

how is grafting done

The types of graft

There are three types of graft: barb, bud and approximation. We tell you what each one consists of and we give you some techniques:

Spike grafts

In these a prong with several buds is inserted on a pattern. You can try these techniques:

  • Cleft spike graft

cleft pua graftA simple option that requires the pattern and variety to have the same diameter (up to 2-3 cm).

In winter (if they are deciduous trees) or spring (if they are evergreen), cut the pattern at the desired point by making a clean, straight cross section. Next, make a vertical slit of about 5-6 cm along the pattern, down the center.

Cut off the end of the double bevel pick . Insert it into the pattern and adjust it so that the crusts of both parts are in contact. Now, tie them firmly with tape to prevent them from coming loose.

The joint will weld in a few weeks and the spike buds will sprout. When they are about 5-10 cm, remove the tape.

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  • Crown spike graft

spike graft in crownIt’s easy to do and usually works great for both deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs.

If you are grafting an expired variety, you must prepare it the previous winter. Cut a 10 cm spike and keep it cold and damp until surgery. If it is a perennial variety, do it in the spring.

It is in this season when you should graft. Start by cutting vertically about 5 cm of bark from the pattern.

Next, cut one side of the bevel pick and insert it into the groove in the cortex, making sure the cambiums match .

Tie the graft and caulk it to protect it. In about two to three weeks the callus should have formed and you can remove the bundle.

Yolk grafts

In this case, instead of a portion of a branch with several buds, what is grafted is the bud directly on the bark of the stock . You can practice it with, among others, these two techniques:

  • Yolk graft in gusset or T

It is one of the most common techniques, especially in the case of fruit trees. If you are starting to practice your first grafts, this will be as useful as it is simple.

Use a sharp knife to clean the rind pattern cross section and a vertical, like the letter T . Spread the crust slightly so that you form a pair of flaps.

On the other hand, extract the bud of the variety leaving 1 cm above and another below its bark.

Insert this gusset into the pattern space, bandage tightly to ensure contact and closure, and let it unfold and weld.

If you do this graft in spring, in a couple of weeks the bud will start to sprout. If you do it at another time of year, be patient: you will see the result next spring.

  • Patch graft

This type of bud graft is best suited for late summer or early fall.

Use a sharp, clean razor to cut a rectangle about 2-3 cm wide from a branch of the pattern.

Next, remove the patch from the bud, which should be exactly the same size as the one taken from the standard, and place it in the hole in the standard. The edges must be in contact and perfectly aligned.

Tie the graft and let it close and callocate for about two weeks.

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Approximation grafts

In this type of graft there is strictly no pattern and variety. It consists of forcing two branches to contact and merge , without cutting either of the two from the plant.

It can be made with branches of the same plant or of two, from early spring to early fall.

How to do it? Actually, the same techniques that we mentioned are followed, only moving the branches to make them match. For example, you can extract two pieces of bark and contact the cambiums, tying the two branches until they meet.

Make grafts and improve your garden

We encourage you to practice with grafting, a branch of gardening with which you can earn a lot in terms of fruit production or shrub flowers. This way you take advantage of much better the possibilities of your garden or orchard and, in addition, while you entertain yourself.

Can you tell us your results?

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