Gardening

How to plant potatoes

Potato, together with wheat and rice, is one of the three most important and complete foods in the food circle, being a great source of energy. Discover the main potato varieties and learn how to plant them in your vegetable garden. This way you will be able to enjoy the fresh and natural flavor of the vegetables in your garden.

The origin of the potato

The potato has the scientific name of Solanum tuberosum and is a perennial tuber that, like tomatoes and aubergines, belongs to the Solanaceae family. It is a vegetable originating in the Andes region in America, which has been cultivated for more than 7000 years. The potato was introduced in Europe in the 16th century, where it spread throughout the world. Currently, the world’s largest potato producers are: China, Russia, India, Ukraine, United States, Germany, Poland, Belarus, the Netherlands and France.

Red skinned potatoes and yellow skinned potatoes

The potato, like lettuce , is distinguished by its size, texture, but also by its color. In this sense, the potato is divided into two main varieties: the red-skinned potato and the yellow-skinned potato.

Red skinned potato

Asterix: it has a very yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of elongated oval shape, large in size and with a high dry matter content. It is a variety that is very susceptible to attack by phytophthora (a type of protist that attacks plants) on the leaves. It is widely used as frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Bartina: has a very yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. Produces large, round-elongated tubers with a low dry matter content. It has good resistance to most viruses, being moderately resistant to phytophthora attack on leaves. Its production requires immediate consumption.

Désirée: shows a light yellow pulp with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of elongated oval shape of large size and with a good content of dry matter. Its production requires immediate consumption and is also widely used in the trade in frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Kondor: it has a light yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. Produces very large oval-shaped tubers with a very low dry matter content. It is a variety that resists several viruses, being moderately resistant to phytophthora attack.

Raja: it has a very yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and very high yield. It produces large oval shaped tubers with a moderate dry matter content. It has resistance to most viruses, being susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves. It is widely used as pre-fried package potatoes.

Romano: it presents a yellowish white pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and has a good yield. It produces large, round-elongated tubers with a low or moderate dry matter content. It offers resistance to some viruses, but it is very susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves. Its production requires instant consumption.

Yellow skinned potato

Alaska: presents a whitish yellow pulp, with early maturity and high yield and has up to 11 tubers per plant. It is a suitable variety for warmer climates, especially Mediterranean.

Aminca: it has a light yellow pulp, with very early maturation and high yield. It produces large oval-shaped tubers with a moderate dry matter content. It is a variety widely used in the commercialization of frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Baraka: shows a light yellow pulp with late maturation and very high yield. It produces very large oval shaped tubers with a high dry matter content. It offers enormous resistance to most viruses, but its leaves are likely to be attacked by phytophthora. Its production is common in frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Bintje: it presents a light yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of elongated oval shape of large size and with a good content of dry matter. It is very susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves. Its production is intended for immediate consumption and is also widely used as frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Escort: offers a light yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of elongated oval shape of large size and with a low content of dry matter. It has good resistance to phytophthora attack on leaves. It is intended to be quickly consumed and is widely used as frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Frieslander: it has a very yellow pulp, with very early maturation and moderate yield. It produces large oval shaped tubers with a low dry matter content. It has a lot of resistance to several viruses, being susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves.

Hermes: it has a very yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces very large round-oval tubers with a moderate dry matter content. It is susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves, despite having enormous resistance to numerous viruses.

Jaerla: it has a light yellow pulp with early maturation and high yield. It produces very large round-oval tubers with a low dry matter content. It is fragile to the phytophthora attack on its leaves.

Kennebec: presents a white pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of round-oval shape of very large size and with a good dry matter content. It is quite resistant to phytophthora attack.

Monalisa: is a variety that was created in the Netherlands and is widely grown in France and Portugal. It has a light yellow pulp, with semi-late maturation and very high yield. Produces very large oval-shaped tubers. Its leaves are susceptible to attack by phytophthora. Its production is intended for instant consumption.

Picasso: it has a light yellow pulp, with semi-early to semi-late maturation and high yield. It produces very large oval shaped tubers and has a moderate dry matter content. Its production requires fast consumption.

Sinora: presents a light yellow pulp, with early maturation and high yield. It produces tubers of round-oval shape of large size and with a good content of dry matter. It is a variety whose leaves are susceptible to attack by phytophthora. It is widely used in the production of frozen pre-fried potatoes.

Spunta: it has a light yellow pulp, with semi-early maturation and very high yield. It produces elongated tubers of large size and with a moderate dry matter content. It has good resistance to several viruses, however, it is very susceptible to phytophthora attack on leaves. The freshness of its production requires rapid consumption.

Best time and climate for growing potatoes

The best time for growing potatoes is related to where you are. For example, in Brazil, the best time for planting potatoes is from August to September/ October and in Europe, planting takes place from March to May. This situation happens due to the temperatures that are felt in the respective countries. The best climate for planting potatoes is temperate, whose average temperature should not exceed 20 degrees Fahrenheit.

How to plant potatoes in your garden

To plant potatoes correctly in your vegetable garden or vegetable garden , you must perform the following steps:

Purchasing potato seeds directly from a nursery

For planting potatoes, potatoes that are for sale in a supermarket can be used, however, planting with seeds will allow you to obtain more tasty potatoes. As such, you should go to a nursery or seed store to find out which type of potato will best adapt to your garden and purchase the respective seeds.

Fertilize the land before planting

In order for the potatoes to grow in a healthy way, the land needs to be fertilized about a month in advance. You can use a plant root cover with soil, manure or straw, or all types of organic fertilizers . Thus, the soil in your garden will be as fertile as possible and will have all the necessary nutrients for planting to be carried out.

Put the seeds on the ground

The seeds must be placed in the soil separately, about 30 centimeters deep and must be covered with soil and manure, straw or compost.

Water the land regularly

After planting the seeds, you should water the soil with some regularity so that the potato can grow. In just a few weeks, the results will jump in sight, as the potato sprouts started to grow directly from the ground.

The growth and ripening of potatoes

Unlike onions and even lemons , potatoes should not be exposed to the sun for long periods of time, as this seriously impairs their production. As the potatoes grow, they should be covered with soil and manure, straw or compost so that the tubers are not left in the sun. This is a mandatory procedure, as if the tubers get too much sun, they can turn green and toxic, which can ruin the respective plantation.

When to harvest the potatoes

The potatoes take approximately 14 to 16 weeks to mature and when they start to bloom, it is a sign that they are almost ready to be harvested. When the plants start to become dry and yellow, the harvest is ready to be carried out, as the tubers have reached their maximum development.

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