Gardening

Irrigation: excess and lack of water, water requirement of plants, dry and humid climate and 7 ways to water

Drip irrigation, automatic irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, furrow irrigation, flooding … there are many types of irrigation. The definition of irrigation can be described as the action of watering, providing water to the growing soil of horticultural plants (agriculture) or ornamental plants (gardening) to meet their water requirements and promote their optimal development .

If your goal is to apply techniques of organic farming and agro – ecology , it is important to know how we make watering our garden properly because of the good management of water will depend on the success when it comes to grow vegetables , growing vegetables and the productivity we achieve.

We also advise you which organic seeds to use , the best planters, growing boxes and tables for your garden and essential books to learn everything about organic gardening .

When we talk about irrigation we refer to the activity induced and generated by human hands in order to moisten the soil in which our crops grow to achieve better performance in the event of lack of rain. For this reason, irrigation is very important in summer , since it is usually the driest time of the year, with less rainfall and high temperatures that reduce soil moisture. It is also important to make efficient use of water .

> Read Why you need to implement Crop Rotation and how to do it

What happens if there is excess or lack of irrigation water?

  • If there is an excess of water in the earth continuously , leaching can occur , that is, an increase in the pH of the earth, a greater acidity that directly damages our plants.

Roots can rot due to root suffocation , that is, excess water does not leave space in the soil for oxygen and drowns the roots, since they also need to breathe. When this happens, the rotting of the roots usually occurs at the same time due to the generation of excessive humidity.

In addition, it can eliminate or reduce nutrients from the soil, so that our plants will grow poor in leaves and fruits, without vitality or, they can even die.

Finally, another common aspect is the appearance of fungi such as powdery mildew , rust or mildew generated by the same humidity. One way to detect this problem of excess water is the difficulty of growing the plant, the yellowing of the leaves or the lack of strength in them.

  • By default of water, plants also suffer serious problems until they die, since they are not properly nourished and they lack basic food to be able to develop. Without water they cannot carry out photosynthesis and therefore they do not produce fruits because they do not have the capacity to carry out this work. We will notice it because the leaves begin to lose strength and fall, and the stem can even lean towards the ground.

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Irrigation water requirements of plants

The need to use water for irrigation is indisputable, but when doing so we must take into account the importance of making good use of it as it is a natural asset that is increasingly scarce, which depends on the rainfall of the season. and that it is essential for any way of life, so our obligation is to use it responsibly .

That is why some types of tasks can be carried out or certain aspects can be taken into account to improve the situation, for example, storing rainwater and using it for irrigation, watering responsibly taking into account the needs of each plant and producing vegetables. according to our specific ecosystem and climatology so as not to have to carry out excessive irrigation.

  • There are plants and vegetables that need a high amount of water while there are others that with little can grow successfully. Some plants that need plenty of water are:

Cabbages, cauliflowers, lettuce, chard and large-leaved plants in general.

  • Fleshy fruit horticultural plants such as:

Eggplants, melons, watermelons, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, potatoes, sweet potatoes, beets, etc., require less abundant watering than the previous ones but done regularly and avoiding water stress.

  • On the other hand, we have vegetables that require little irrigation water :

Garlic, onions, celery, leek, radish, carrots, most aromatic plants.

water garden

Irrigation in dry and humid weather

Depending on the average amount of rainfall that occurs in the area where you cultivate your garden or garden, we can talk about:

  • I grow in dry climates if there is a rainfall amount of approximately 800m.
  • Humid climates when reaching levels of approximately 1000mm per year.

According to these characteristics, it is convenient to carry out one crop or another to more easily adapt the crop to the specific climate, in this way, water will be saved in irrigation and therefore, it will be more ecological and beneficial for the environment .

If you are in a dry climate, the best options to adapt to the soil is to use the vegetables that we have mentioned above that require less water. In the case of planting other plants that need external irrigation, below we will present the different ways to do it and you must choose the one that best suits the needs of your harvest.

On the other hand, in a humid climate it will always be better to use vegetables that require more water, since those that need little can suffer from drowning, fungus or not develop.

What types of irrigation are there? The 7 most used ways to water

There are many irrigation methods that can be put into practice, and depending on the extension of your garden or garden they can be more or less practical:

From a simple irrigation with a watering can , which allows us to be precise and focus the irrigation on a specific point.

Irrigation with a hose in a dispersed way to moisten the soil and the air, or in specific areas to carry out a deep and intense irrigation.

Irrigation drip or drip irrigation through hoses or pipes all over the floor,

The gravity irrigation is passed through small channels or grooves the water sprinklers and go distributing steadily but slowly to the ground.

The sprinkler irrigation , to do with hoses or prepared sprinklers provides moisture to the outer layers of the soil, but also to the air, causing some humidity.

Irrigation by furrows , the water flows through channels that are created in the land itself. A lot of water is needed and much of it is lost through evaporation.

The flood irrigation , is also a type of irrigation in which large amount of water is needed. Also known as blanket irrigation, it can have damaging effects on the structure and quality of the soil and tends to erode it.

There are types of irrigation that are more sustainable or sustainable for the environment . Drip or exudate irrigation is the one with which we use water in the most efficient way, try to opt for this option whenever possible. You can even use it for gardens in pots or pots.

You should apply one type or another of irrigation according to the need of your plants, taking into account everything that we have been indicating throughout this article to improve your garden and crops, and the environmental impact of one form or another of irrigation. Also, keep in mind that you can use more than one type of irrigation simultaneously, applying it to specific areas so as not to waste water and use it in a productive way.

Thanks for reading, we hope this article on irrigation has been useful to you.

 

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