Italian garden

Italian garden

The garden has always been one of the cornerstones in the appearance of a house. In the mid-sixteenth century, influenced by the historical period they were experiencing (we are in the Renaissance), the nobles sought new and particular arrangements for their large gardens. The Italian garden starts from the assumption that a garden does not necessarily have to develop on a single floor, but on the contrary, it can be equipped with terraces and hanging gardens. Its peculiarity is the rigid geometricism and the rigorous relationship between the various elements that compose it, according to the typical Renaissance thought for which the garden must be the representation of the cosmic order, which expresses concepts of rhythm and harmony, but also balance. In this way, the Italian garden brings together different species of trees and flowers.

The Italian garden and the Renaissance

According to the ancients, beauty was the fruit of harmony. Strengthened by this teaching and banner of the historical period in which it was located, the Italian garden was “the verb” in the art of creating gardens throughout the Renaissance, until the moment when, in the 17th century, the garden was being established French way. But the 16th century was dominated by this current, during which the garden underwent an evolution, with changes in its architecture that led to the birth of topiary art. Two cities were the forge of this type of garden, to the point of heavily influencing its basic rules: Florence and Rome. Florence was the first to deal with the art of gardens and did so as early as the 15th century, while the new concepts arrived in Rome later, making it the fulcrum of the garden at the

A scenographic system

The Italian garden contained within itself the desire to achieve a very scenographic effect, aimed at surprising those who visited it. If the plant components were forced to assume rigid geometric shapes, the water was inserted into the context in the form of jets, fountains, canals, basins and waterfalls, to further increase the effect of amazement and admiration in those who looked. The garden had to be permanent and keep its shape over time, so the use of evergreen plants such as boxwood, holm oak, laurel, myrtle, yew, pine and cypress was massively used. This brings us to another connotation of the Renaissance garden: the green color and that of the stone are the only chromatic effect that is present in this type of structures.

The characteristics of the Italian garden

Developed along a main avenue on which the secondary avenues intersect: this is the plan of an Italian garden, while the hedges take on precise geometric shapes, circular, square or polygonal, to form real green rooms. The terraces, when present, are joined together by stairs and balustrades. The perimeter walls separate it from the outside, from that disorder of nature that has not yet been tamed by man. But time passes, the presence of architectural elements adapts to softer, sinuous forms, the horizons widen, the layout becomes more complex, the opulence enters the garden to remember the absolutism of the monarchs, the century is over: French gardens are born, but that’s another story.

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