Gardening

Serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum)

The serrano pepper or ” Capsicum annuum “ is from the mountains of northern Mexico, more common in those of Hidalgo and Puebla. It is also known as green chile and its main characteristic is its intense heat even more powerful than jalapeño. The shape is cylindrical, small in size and some end in a point.

Main characteristics of the serrano pepper

In Mexico it is highly consumed as it is present in countless typical dishes such as chilaquiles, in sauces, soups, stews and stews. The plant measures 50 to 150 centimeters, the leaves are flat, ovoid and elongated, the edges are smooth, the surface is hairy and green. The flowers are white, have 5 petals, are hermaphroditic and appear two months after being planted.

They form in the axillary area of ​​the plant, they come off after two days and give way to the birth of the chili peppers. Each plant is capable of producing 50 or more chili peppers, the average size being 5 to 15 mm wide by 60 mm long. Once developed, they reach approximately 4 cm, their tone changes from orange to red and the appearance is curved and elongated. A plant that can very well be grown at home since it is not very large and produces a good amount of chili peppers.

Culture

The first thing is to guarantee a soil since it must be light and well drained, the recommended thing is a mixture of sand, soil and good quality compost which guarantees that the seeds generate a product with a crunchy texture, of the appropriate thickness and the ideal degree of itching; three elements that directly affect the quality of the chili.

It is convenient to measure the quantities of the components of the substrate so as not to fall short, since the plant needs a good amount of nutrients to grow strong, healthy and give good chili peppers. It is worth noting that with a well-prepared soil, it is not necessary to fertilize continuously. The season for the cultivation of chili is summer, for this reason it is necessary to continuously monitor the irrigation without falling into excesses, that is, the flooding of the soil, since the roots are going to be damaged and the plant dies.

An indication of excess liquid is that the plant turns yellowish, if it is in an open ground it reduces the intensity of the irrigation and if it is in a pot it prevents water from accumulating in the dish.

If temperatures are very high and the substrate is dry on the surface, before watering it is important to check the humidity a little lower to determine whether or not it is necessary to moisten the soil. Especially if the substrate does not have good drainage. The experts in these peppers recommend harvesting before they are ripe, which happens approximately 75 days after planting.

The cultivation requires good lighting, quality substrate and very well cared for irrigation without exaggeration. Chilli peppers must be collected directly from the plant as they are needed to always guarantee a fresh and quality product. According to crop experts, the recommendation is to plant them in the company of onions, coriander and tomatoes as they benefit each other.

Crop hazards

Like other crops, they are exposed to various diseases and pests, which is why you have to be vigilant. Among the most common we find the spider mite, whitefly, aphids and leaf miners. Regarding the diseases that occur in these crops, we have white mold and gray rot. Plantations require appropriate crops to avoid being affected by some of these elements.

Properties

Its properties include the contribution of vitamin C and A, minerals such as iron and magnesium, fiber, calcium, sulfur carbohydrates, proteins, iodine, sodium and potassium, in addition to its high water content. The serrano chili has a primary use in Mexican cuisine, as we mentioned before, it is present in various traditional recipes and is highly appreciated for its high level of heat.

It also has other uses that benefit health, such as lowering blood pressure or reactivating the circulatory system, as well as contributing to skin care. Other of its properties focus on the prevention of heart attacks, cholesterol reduction, helps with blood pressure disorders and is a natural anticoagulant.

It is also linked to analgesic, antimicrobial, anticancer, analgesic, migraine control, expectorant, appetite calming and metabolism accelerator, among other things. If we talk about the aesthetic part, it is attributed healing properties for acne, stimulation of collagen production, relieves burns, favors hair growth and circulation.

Types of serrano pepper

In reality, there is only one serrano pepper and hybrid species have been derived from it, in which certain properties stand out, for example, some are more resistant to pests or diseases, others have more meat, others are better preserved in the time or are more spicy and among these varieties, there are some that really stand out:

  • Colossus.
  • Tampiqueño.
  • Centaur.
  • Paradise.
  • Tuxtlas.
  • Serrano 237.
  • Serranito.
  • Serrano Lord.
  • Serrano Huasteco.
  • Serrano del sol F1.
  • Serrano 3036.
  • Serrano balín.
  • Serrano purple.
  • Dry Serrano.
  • Serrano Veracruz.
  • Dry serrano from Yucatan.
  • Tampico Serrano.

Any of the serrano pepper plant species is characterized by the width of the crown that causes it to be oriented towards the sides, which you will observe mainly in the plants that are planted in open spaces. Even so, the fruits are usually larger and in greater quantities than when planted in pots.

This chili is not only very popular and used in Mexican cuisine, since its heat and extraordinary flavor have made it the favorite of many other countries. In addition, it adapts to various growing conditions, which makes it easy to sow in any place where it has permanent sun and a good substrate.

There are several elements of the serrano that make it highly valued, the first is that it not only provides a delicious spice but also leaves a well-pronounced flavor in food. It is so meaty and juicy that you can eat it raw, but get ready for an explosion of flavor on your palate.

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