Gardening

What to plant in the Ecological Garden?

Growing your own garden is a 100% rewarding, healthy and useful activity. You get fresh and tasty products .

This activity requires time and perseverance, but not too much. As you gain experience and learn from your mistakes, the variety of vegetables, as well as their production, will increase. Never be in a rush! The rush is not good in the garden.

In addition, the garden, if it is well organized, whether in rows or geometric beds, will combine beauty with utility. Today there are many gardeners who do not confine the garden to the last corner, but integrate it into the garden with the flowers creating an artistic and harmonious whole. This Manual aims to introduce the horticultural enthusiast to the basic knowledge for its implementation and proper maintenance.

If you don’t have land, use a terrace or patio to grow vegetables in pots, planters, or other containers. It is a perfectly valid alternative. Today the terraces, attics and roofs of buildings full of edible plants are increasingly seen in cities. Fruit trees go well in a good pot.

Choose the species to grow

There is an extraordinary assortment of vegetables and herbs to grow. Today, you can count on at the same time:

– Early, late or mid-season varieties.

– Normal or dwarf.


– Fast growing or normal growing.

Look for the most appropriate varieties for the climate and soil in your area.

The soil you have is also very important. For example, cauliflower will not do well in sandy, depleted soil. To start, it will be better to try a few varieties and complicate your life as you gain experience.
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Here you have a list with the time that passes from when they are sown until they are harvested.
It is an average figure since it depends on the climate.

Lettuce (leaves) ………………… 5/6 weeks

Radishes …………………………….
5


Small radishes ………… .. 8


Lettuce (buds) …………….
8


Carrots ………………………… 10


Peas ………………………… .. 10


Rutabagas ………………………… .. 10


Aubergines …………………… …… 10/12


Tomato ……………………………… .. 10/12


Early potatoes …………… .. 10/12


Beans ………………………………….
12/10


Beet ………………………….
12


Calabrian broccoli …………………… 12


Italian peppers …………… .. 12


Red peppers …………………… 14


Broad beans ………………………………… .. 20


Cauliflower ………………………………… .. 20


Potatoes ………………………………….
22


Onions ……………………………….
24


Celery ……………………………………….
28


Kale ……………………………… 28


Leeks ………………………………….
28


Brussels sprouts ……………… .. 30


Cabbage ………………………………………… 32


Broccoli …………………………………… 40

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Crop rotation

Generally, the garden is divided into several zones or small plots (3 or 4), called leaves or eras. Each leaf is intended for a single crop or several together with similar requirements and they are rotated so as not to always cultivate the same species in the same field.

With this technique you get 2 things:

1. Partially avoid the increase in specific soil pests and diseases for each group from so much repeating those species in the same soil. If the host is missing, the parasites will die out. Although it is not perfect, since the pests and fungi in the soil can move from one plot to the other and resist many years.

2. Another advantage of rotating vegetables is that Legumes (beans, broad beans and peas) fix atmospheric Nitrogen through nodules in their roots, making it available for the next crop and thus enriching the soil. Grow Nitrogen-starved ones like cabbages, potatoes or spinach after legumes.

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Crop tabs

Tomato

The tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family and needs warm or temperate climates to grow without problems. There is a coincidence in assigning the origin of the tomato to the north of present-day Peru since pre-Inca times, where there are still a large number of wild varieties. The tomato traveled to Europe from Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire, after the Spanish conquest, where it was known as xitomatl, “fruit with a navel” (from which the current name in many states of Mexico comes, tomato). Fruit of the tomato silver, red when ripe. It is a vegetable with very rich culinary and health properties. It is rich in vitamins C and A.

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Peppers

The pepper is native to the area of ​​Bolivia and Peru, where in addition to Capsicum annuum L. at least four other species were cultivated. It was brought to the Old World by Columbus on his first voyage (1493). In the 16th century its cultivation had already spread in Spain, from where it was distributed to the rest of Europe and the world with the collaboration of the Portuguese. Its introduction in Europe was a culinary advance, since it came to complement and even replace another widely used condiment such as black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), of great commercial importance between East and West.

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The eggplant

Eggplant is native to India where it has been cultivated for more than 4,000 years. It came to Spain during the Middle Ages, thanks to the Muslims, when they occupied our country. And it was the Spanish who introduced it to Europe, where it spread rapidly, especially to France and Italy. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, and comes from the wild species Solanum melongena, variety esculentum. It is a plant of warm or temperate climates, very sensitive to cold and needs a period of hot growth, to be able to enjoy a good harvest and its optimal flavor.

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Legumes: green beans

Green Beans belong to the Fabaceae family and to the Papilionaceae subspecies. They need a temperate, tropical or subtropical climate to grow. The Green Beans are the pods of the Beans and inside are the seeds, which when they develop and dry, become the beans or dried beans. They can have different shapes: flat, round or corded or cordate. Green beans have been cultivated for 5,000 years. They are native to Mexico and Peru, although some believe that they are native to Asia, India and China. They arrived in Spain from Mexico and in the 16th century, their consumption spread to the rest of Europe. It was not until the 19th century that the green pod began to be eaten. Currently, it is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world.

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Watermelons and melons

There is no homogeneous criterion regarding the origin of the melon, although most authors accept that the melon has an African origin. Although, there are some who consider India as the center of domestication of the species, since it is where the greatest variability is found for it. Afghanistan and China are considered secondary centers of melon diversification and also in Spain genetic diversity is important. Melons are climbing plants with stems that can climb if given proper support. They are species that require a period of great heat and are extremely sensitive to cold and excess humidity.

You can continue to see the Manual What to plant in the Ecological Garden? from the Eco-harvest School of Agroecology

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