Plants

Evergreen forest

Much of life on the planet takes place in the evergreen forest. There are different types of forests depending on the characteristics of each type of tree that is most abundant in them. Today we are going to go into the characteristics and importance of the evergreen forest. The trees that preserve the greenness of the leaves regardless of the change of season is the evergreen forest.

Therefore, we are going to dedicate this article to tell you everything you need to know about them.

Main features

The word evergreen comes from a durable or evergreen leaf or tree. In other words, a plant that, although there are changes in the season, will always keep its leaves. It is true that plants maintain a period of vegetative rest, where their metabolic activity is reduced, but it does not mean that these plants will lose their leaves. They are continually dropping and replenishing the leaves in such a way that the overall density is usually the same. These types of plants are also called evergreen or semi-permanent.

There are regions on the planet that are colder so that their trees can lose their leaves. However, evergreen trees do not shed their leaves and are not affected by climatic variations. They usually detach a small fraction of the leaves to be able to renew them gradually. This fall of the leaves is usually done every year or every two years but they usually keep all a canopy covered with leaves. Another characteristic that these types of forests usually have is that their trees maintain their intense green color throughout the cycle of the year.

Unlike them, deciduous trees are those that release their leaves in times of greater inclement weather. That is, in the winter season with the drop in temperatures and the arrival of frost, they shed their leaves to save energy in their metabolism. The set of deciduous trees make up what we know as a deciduous forest.

Among the characteristics that stand out of the evergreen forest we have several subcategories. One of them is the one that includes all the trees that are evergreen but have wide leaves. Normally these trees are found in equatorial territories and tropical lands where temperatures are somewhat higher and rainfall is very frequent. These climatic conditions mean that there are species such as the magnolia tree, a ficus that can survive very well in areas with warmer environments. The enormous size of its leaves helps to contribute to the improvement of biodiversity and the different attitudes of the flora.

Types of evergreen forest

What the broad-leaved evergreen forest types have is that they are capable of absorbing a greater amount of sunlight. This prevents them from owing apart from the lower vegetation so the understory vegetation can be harmed. We can find very few shrubs that can survive under the shade of large trees that have the broad leaves typical of a jungle. This is because they do not receive enough sunlight and cannot properly photosynthesize.

There are some species called epiphytes in these forests that hang on logs or branches. Creepers are also frequently found in the evergreen forest. These plants are species that are placed in a way in which they adapt to receive the sun’s rays. If we go to a broad-leaved evergreen forest we can see these plants less frequently. In the more temperate climates there are some species of trees such as orange, carob, laurel, olive, eucalyptus and willow that are very abundant.

In those ecosystems where low temperatures predominate where birch trees reign more. Birch belongs to the order of the Fagales and these arboreal extensions are also usually composed of other trees such as oaks, beech and alders.

Trees with scales and needles

Another type of evergreen forest is one whose trees have very unique shaped leaves. And is that these leaves are shaped like scales or needles. The texture of these leaves is quite rigid and they are covered by a resin. This is the resin that many urban ornamentation trees often stain vehicle windows. There are a few main species more frequent in this type of ecosystem. Among these types of trees with scale and needle leaves we have pine, cedars, yew and cypress, among others. These trees are also known by the name of conifers. It is called this way because they grow taking a cone-like appearance.

There are other species such as pine which is mainly abundant in somewhat colder regions. This is because they have a great capacity to adapt to ecosystems with low temperatures and adverse environmental conditions. Most of the evergreen forests of Siberia, Alaska and Scandinavia have pine as an abundant species. And it is that these species are capable of forming large wooded areas of thousands of hectares. In addition, one of the main characteristics of pine is that it is capable of forming ecosystems with great leafiness. This foliage is usually positive for the conservation of biodiversity and soil regeneration.

Evergreen forests are a form of adaptation to different environmental conditions. The flora must fit in that place that allows it to develop. In other words, it is the climate that limits the growth of a certain type of flora. For this reason, in many of these places with frequent climatic inclemency we tend to find alternation between evergreen forests and deciduous forests.

Climate adaptations

A frequently asked question about the evergreen forest is the lifespan of the leaves. Since they are continually dropping some leaves and renewing others they wonder how long the leaf can help get oxygen. This question does not have a fixed answer since the traits in the useful life of the leaf will depend on the peculiarities of the climate and the soil where the tree is located. And it is that each tree has a different need for adaptation.

Some species must adapt to somewhat adverse climates. Therefore, the fall of the leaves and the renewal of continuous form can help to prevent dehydration during summer time when the precipitations are lower and the temperatures are higher.

I hope that with this information you can learn more about the evergreen forest.

 

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