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Fertilization

Fertilization

Fertilization is a fundamental practice in gardening and agriculture. It consists in administering, to the soil and to the plants, substances capable of improving the composition of the soil and of nourishing the cultivated species in order to favor their healthy and luxuriant growth. In agricultural practice there is not a single cultivation method, but many techniques, which must be adapted to the species of plant cultivated, the climate and the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil. Generally, the substances that are supplied to plants and the soil during fertilization, are those essential for plant growth, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and those that complement plant development and maintain soil conditions. namely calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese and others. These minerals also exist in nature, but climatic and terrestrial events, such as rain, washout, erosion, make them unavailable to plants and the soil itself, where they are dispersed in large quantities. Some of these elements are also very volatile, that is, they are also dispersed in the air and are not easily absorbed by plants, except through suitable fertilization and soil preparation techniques. Fertilizing therefore consists in administering nourishment to the soil and the plant. The term is synonymous with fertilizing which also means making the soil fertile to prepare it for the growth of cultivated plant species. Fertilization, therefore, has a double effect: nourishing and fertilizing. It is no coincidence that the products used for fertilization are also called «fertilizers».

Types of fertilization


Even if the meaning of fertilization is unique and has been clarified in the previous paragraph (nourishment and fertilization), the administration of substances to the soil and to the plants can also take place for other purposes, always functional to the main objective, i.e. the possibility that plants grow. healthy and withstand adverse environmental conditions and disease. Fertilization can also be carried out to modify the chemical characteristics of the soil, in this case we speak of corrective fertilization. A soil is corrected when its acidity level, indicated with the pH unit of measurement, is changed. The correction of the degree of acidity or of the pH of the soil is necessary when some species of cultivated plants cannot bear the excessive acidity of the soil or, on the contrary, its low acidity (basicity). A soil is poorly acidic or basic when it is very rich in calcium. Some plants, such as azaleas, rhododendrons and heather are called acidophilic because they cannot withstand the excessive presence of calcium in the soil. If the soil is too calcareous, it must be corrected by lowering the amount of calcium present, on the contrary, if it is too acidic and it is decided to grow legumes that love calcium, the necessary amount of calcium must be given to the soil. Fertilization can also be used to modify the physical characteristics of the soil, such as compactness, degree of humidity, dryness. In this case we speak of fertilizer fertilizer. Improving the physical characteristics of the soil is essential to allow the roots of the plant to absorb the right amount of nutrients. Of course, everything will depend on the type of plant grown. There are species that love well-drained soils and in this case it will be essential to fertilize the soil with substances that favor adequate humidity. As can be seen, fertilization can satisfy various cultural needs, all of which are functional to the regular growth of plants and to the healthy maintenance of the chemical and physical structure of the soil. The fertilization that prepares the soil to accommodate the seeds of new plants or small seedlings, is called basic fertilization, the one that precedes the harvest or that follows it, is also called ordinary fertilization, since it is carried out periodically and a few times a year. based on the nutritional and vegetative development needs of the plant. The fertilization that precedes the harvest is also called anticipatory, while that which occurs after the harvest of the crops is called restitution. We will clarify these concepts better when we talk about the fertilization procedure.

What is used


The fertilization of the soil is carried out using compounds or mixtures that contain the nutrients to be administered to the plant and the soil. These compounds are called fertilizers or fertilizers and can be chemical or natural. Chemical fertilizers are those in which the nutritional elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium), called macroelements, and the secondary ones (iron, zinc, manganese, etc.) called microelements, are obtained from industrial processing processes, i.e. they are obtained extracting them from chemical processes; while the natural ones are obtained from organic materials existing in nature, such as manure, peat, dried blood of slaughtered animals and the like. Natural fertilizers contain both nutrients and microelements, only the latter are naturally present in the substances used to fertilize and must not be extracted through chemical processes. Natural fertilizers are also called organic (for the material of origin) or organic, to indicate their naturalness and purity. Sometimes, for a better use of nutrients by the soil and plants, it is necessary to use natural fertilizers that have been dried. Drying consists in dehydrating the organic matter, which will lose the useless substances and will keep the ones useful for fertilization unaltered. When natural fertilizer is dried it is also referred to as a mature fertilizer. Natural fertilizers are also called organic (for the material of origin) or organic, to indicate their naturalness and purity. Sometimes, for a better use of nutrients by the soil and plants, it is necessary to use natural fertilizers that have been dried. Drying consists in dehydrating the organic matter, which will lose the useless substances and will keep the ones useful for fertilization unaltered. When natural fertilizer is dried it is also referred to as a mature fertilizer. Natural fertilizers are also called organic (for the material of origin) or organic, to indicate their naturalness and purity. Sometimes, for a better use of nutrients by the soil and plants, it is necessary to use natural fertilizers that have been dried. Drying consists in dehydrating the organic matter, which will lose the useless substances and will keep the ones useful for fertilization unaltered. When natural fertilizer is dried it is also referred to as a mature fertilizer. which will lose useless substances and will keep those useful for fertilization unaltered. When natural fertilizer is dried it is also referred to as a mature fertilizer. which will lose useless substances and will keep those useful for fertilization unaltered. When natural fertilizer is dried it is also referred to as a mature fertilizer.

Benefits natural fertilization


Ripe organic fertilizers guarantee a good dose of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and a right amount of microelements. They also have the advantage of not being toxic to the environment and of not impoverishing the properties of the soil, which happens with excessive chemical fertilization. For large cultivated areas, natural fertilization has always represented a cost, since natural substances must be transported from the place of origin to the place of production. Over the years, then, due to the industrial treatments to which the farms are subjected, organic fertilization with sewage has become as polluting as the chemical one. Natural fertilization is practicable in gardens and vegetable gardens, because the small cultivated areas allow to amortize the costs of natural fertilizers, often higher than the chemical ones. Mature manure, for example, can be obtained from local farmers. Unfortunately, if you do not have adequate agricultural knowledge, the administration of organic fertilizers by eye can cause symptoms of deficiency or excess fertilization in plants. The alternative to organic fertilization by eye is to use organic fertilizers marketed by fertilizer companies. The mature manure, in these cases, is marketed in packages that indicate exactly the quantity to be used and the ideal period of fertilization. the administration of organic fertilizers by eye can cause symptoms of deficiency or excess of fertilization in plants. The alternative to organic fertilization by eye is to use organic fertilizers marketed by fertilizer companies. The mature manure, in these cases, is marketed in packages that indicate exactly the quantity to be used and the ideal period of fertilization. the administration of organic fertilizers by eye can cause symptoms of deficiency or excess of fertilization in plants. The alternative to organic fertilization by eye is to use organic fertilizers marketed by fertilizer companies. The mature manure, in these cases, is marketed in packages that indicate exactly the quantity to be used and the ideal period of fertilization.

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