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Fertilizers

Fertilizers

The term «fertilization» refers to procedures that tend to improve the composition of the soil and make it more suitable for the growth of the plant. Fertilizing therefore means making the soil fertile. In a broader term, fertilization includes all those cultivation techniques that aim to improve the characteristics of the soil and nourish the plants. In this sense, fertilization and fertilization are synonymous. Fertilization, unlike fertilization, makes use of both the use of fertilizers, also called fertilizers, and the execution of specific cultivation techniques that make the soil suitable for growing plants. Fertilization through the use of fertilizers also has a nutritional purpose, it serves, that is, to provide the plants with the essential substances for their growth, while crop fertilization uses practices of moving, lifting and mixing the soil in order to make it softer and more receptive to planting the plants. The administration of fertilizers to the soil serves not only to nourish the plants, but also to improve the composition of the soil and correct any chemical and physical imbalances. Depending on the effect they will have on the soil and plants, nutritional, corrective or soil improver fertilizers will be used. The composition of these fertilizers, regardless of their purpose, can be both chemical and natural. The administration of fertilizers to the soil serves not only to nourish the plants, but also to improve the composition of the soil and correct any chemical and physical imbalances. Depending on the effect they will have on the soil and plants, nutritional, corrective or soil improver fertilizers will be used. The composition of these fertilizers, regardless of their purpose, can be both chemical and natural. The administration of fertilizers to the soil serves not only to nourish the plants, but also to improve the composition of the soil and correct any chemical and physical imbalances. Depending on the effect they will have on the soil and plants, nutritional, corrective or soil improver fertilizers will be used. The composition of these fertilizers, regardless of their purpose, can be both chemical and natural.

Fertilizers for nutrition


Fertilizers for plant nutrition are compounds, also called fertilizers, which are administered to the soil and plants in order to provide all the main substances for plant development. They can be chemical or natural and contain the main nutritional elements of plants, namely nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, also called macroelements, and other minerals not fundamental in the nutrition process (iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium, boron, etc.), called microelements, but still important for the normal development of the metabolic functions of plants, such as chlorophyll photosynthesis, flower development and strengthening of the root system. The basic nutritional needs of the plants are similar and the fertilizers with macroelements with the NPK formula are the ones that cannot be missing in the nutritional fertilization process of the species you want to cultivate. The important thing is to know the needs and characteristics of the individual plants in order not to make mistakes in the dosage of fertilizers. The administration of these products usually takes place in two periods of the year, in spring and autumn, while it must be suspended in the winter. The combination of the various nutritional elements changes according to the cultivated species and the period of administration of the product. Using the instructions given on the fertilizer packages, it is difficult to make administration errors, as long as you use the right fertilizer. On the market there are, in fact, chemical or natural fertilizers for flowering plants, fruit plants and green leaves. A higher nitrogen concentration, for example, improves the color of the leaves, while a potassium fertilization improves the color of the petals.

Corrective fertilizers


Corrective fertilizers, as the term implies, are used to correct the chemical and physical composition of the soil. Not all substrates are suitable for plant growth. Too hard and calcareous soils, for example, prevent the roots of plants from properly absorbing the nutrients administered with fertilizers. Before planting the crops, «difficult» soils can be corrected with corrective fertilizers. In those that are too calcareous, fertilizers based on acidic substances can be added that lower the pH of the soil, in those that are too acidic, on the contrary, fertilizers based on calcium can be used, which raises the pH of the soil. Fertilizers can also have a soil improver function, that is, of improvement and reconstitution of the characteristics of the soil that may have depleted as a result of the harvest. During this cultivation phase, the soil may have a shortage of macro and microelements, proving not very suitable for planting new crops.

Chemical fertilizers


Chemical fertilizers are obtained from industrial processing processes. Both macro and micro elements are synthesized exclusively through chemical processes. This processing method allows to have compounds in liquid, granular or powder form. These products can be simple, that is, composed of a single mineral, or complex, that is, composed of several substances. The most used chemical fertilizers are those with the NPK formula (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) with the addition of microelements. The availability of nutrients is guaranteed by the specific chemical formulation of the product, because only the chemically synthesized mineral compound would not be absorbed by the plants. The possibilities of absorption are possible thanks to the combination of other chemical elements that give life to nitrates, chlorides, to sulphates and urea. Based on the mineral prevalent in the compound, nitrogen, phosphatic and potassium fertilizers will be obtained, which, combined with other molecules, will give life to nitrates and nitrogen urea, chlorides and phosphorus and potassium sulphates respectively. The advantages of chemical fertilizers are low cost and ease of transport. On the other hand, these substances have a high environmental impact and a discrete, if not significant, polluting effect that alters the composition of the soil depriving it of its main chemical and physical constituents. Nitrates, for example, are believed to be responsible for the pollution of groundwater. Despite this, chemistry also offers fertilizers with amending and corrective properties, that is, with effects that improve the quality of the soil.

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