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Jasmine

Jasmine

Jasmine, botanical name Jasminum L. includes over 200 different species of shrub, climbing and evergreen plants. Those grown in our gardens are an evergreen climber that also serves to cover walls, fences and pergolas and an ornamental shrub that usually grows in pots. The origins of jasmine are not yet fully known, given the great variety of species classified with the wording of this plant. The species of the genus Jasmine belong to the Olaceae family and are native to India, China, Afghanistan, Spain and other Mediterranean countries. It is probable that some varieties have been important in Europe from the Far East.

Features


Jasmine is a shrubby climber that can reach variable heights, from 4 to 15 meters, depending on the species it belongs to. It is a plant that adapts to any type of soil. The same cannot be said for the temperature, since the common jasmine prefers temperate climates and does not withstand low temperatures. But even in this case, it is always the variety that makes the difference: some species of jasmine flower, in fact, in winter, others in spring or summer. The plant has narrow and long leaves, grouped in small leaflets, and simple flowers, with four or five petals of white color. Some jasmine varieties may also have yellow, pink, and even blue-tinged flowers. Some color variations are obtained thanks to hybrid varieties. The main characteristic of jasmine is the scent of its flowers, especially the white ones, which emit odorous essences at night. This property of jasmine flowers is also exploited by the cosmetic industry to produce feminine perfumes.

Variety


There are several varieties of jasmine, and it would be impossible to list them all, also because some species, even if called by the same name, do not belong at all to the jasmine genus. For greater clarity, we will restrict our description to the more well-known varieties, namely: Jasminum azoricum, Jasminum officinalis, Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum nudiflorum, Jasminum odorantissimum, Jasminum primulinum, Jasmimum polyanthum, and the hybrid Jasminum stephanense. The Jasminum azoricum variety is a climbing shrub native to North America. It blooms in summer and prefers temperate climates. The Jasminum officinalis or officinal jasmine variety is a plant suitable even for less mild temperatures. With a climbing habit, the officinal jasmine can reach up to 15 meters in height, has white flowers, small and very fragrant, with varieties with yellow or pink shades. The flowering of officinal jasmine occurs from June to September. This jasmine variety is native to India, China and Iran. Also from India comes the jasmine grandiflorum, a climbing plant grown in pots due to its poor resistance to low temperatures. The flowers of the grandiflorum variety are large, pink in color, with white shades at the end of flowering. The flower arrangement of this jasmine species always develops in the summer period. Jasmine nudiflorum, also from China, is also called St. Joseph’s jasmine. It has dark green leaves and yellow flowers gathered in bunches, which develop from November to April, on the branches of the previous year. This variety is resistant to low temperatures and can be placed to decorate walls that are more exposed to the shade, but sheltered from the cold winds that can slow down flowering. The jasmine odorantissumum variety is native to Spain and has very fragrant, yellow flowers that bloom during the summer. Always yellow, the double flowers of the jasmine primulinum variety, which bloom from March to May. This climbing variety is native to China and is grown outdoors only in areas with a temperate climate. The polyanthum variety, on the other hand, is suitable for greenhouse cultivation, where the flowers (white or pink) bloom from November to April. The polyanthum species can also be grown outdoors, in areas with a harsh climate, where the flowers bloom between April and June. The jasminum stephanense hybrid is obtained from a cross between officinal jasmine and a summer flowering species native to China (Jasminum beesianum). The hybrid, with pink flowers, blooms in summer and has branches that develop on their own, without the need for any external or additional support.

Cultivation


The cultivation of jasmine will depend on the variety chosen. The species that adapt to mild climates should be grown outdoors only if they are generally temperate areas, otherwise it is necessary to cultivate them in pots, to shelter them in case of too cold temperatures. The more rustic varieties, that is those suitable for low temperatures, can be grown outside only in areas with a generally harsh climate. In the Mediterranean areas, the varieties that like the cold should be grown in greenhouses, at temperatures around five degrees centigrade. The soil for growing jasmine does not have to have particular properties, because this plant adapts to any type of soil. The plant must be grown in sunny places, but without direct sun exposure. The planting of jasmine takes place between October and April in areas with a temperate climate, while in other areas it will be necessary to choose the periods with the mildest temperatures or, in any case, not below ten degrees, in order to favor the germination of the plant. and anticipate flowering. Jasmine suitable for mild temperatures is grown outdoors and should be placed under direct sunlight for at least a couple of hours a day. Jasmine grown outdoors in cold climate areas can be protected from frost by covering the ground with straw or mulch made of dry branches or leaves. Jasmine grown in pots like a mixture made with garden soil, universal soil, sand and peat. while in other areas it will be necessary to choose the periods with the mildest temperatures or, in any case, not below ten degrees, in order to favor the germination of the plant and anticipate flowering. Jasmine suitable for mild temperatures is grown outdoors and should be placed under direct sunlight for at least a couple of hours a day. Jasmine grown outdoors in cold climate areas can be protected from frost by covering the ground with straw or mulch made of dry branches or leaves. Jasmine grown in pots like a mixture made with garden soil, universal soil, sand and peat. while in other areas it will be necessary to choose the periods with the mildest temperatures or, in any case, not below ten degrees, in order to favor the germination of the plant and anticipate flowering. Jasmine suitable for mild temperatures is grown outdoors and should be placed under direct sunlight for at least a couple of hours a day. Jasmine grown outdoors in cold climate areas can be protected from frost by covering the ground with straw or mulch made of dry branches or leaves. Jasmine grown in pots like a mixture made with garden soil, universal soil, sand and peat. Jasmine suitable for mild temperatures is grown outdoors and should be placed under direct sunlight for at least a couple of hours a day. Jasmine grown outdoors in cold climate areas can be protected from frost by covering the ground with straw or mulch made of dry branches or leaves. Jasmine grown in pots like a mixture made with garden soil, universal soil, sand and peat. Jasmine suitable for mild temperatures is grown outdoors and should be placed under direct sunlight for at least a couple of hours a day. Jasmine grown outdoors in cold climate areas can be protected from frost by covering the ground with straw or mulch made of dry branches or leaves. Jasmine grown in pots like a mixture made with garden soil, universal soil, sand and peat.

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