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How to irrigate

The vine could be damaged both by the drought in the summer season, and by too intense rains in autumn or winter: for this reason, watering must be regulated on the basis of the period and the trend of rainfall. It is absolutely necessary to avoid water stagnation, which, by causing excessive humidity in the soil, cause rottenness of the roots and spread of fungal diseases. Equally counterproductive can be an administration of water reduced to a minimum in winter, since this, after causing the vegetative awakening, would block the growth and ripening of the fruits. To obtain a rational and controlled distribution of water resources, drip irrigation is recommended as a method; this technique also allows considerable savings.

Cultivation and care


For the cultivation of this plant, a well-drained and not too compact soil is suggested, even if in general it adapts easily to numerous types of soil. The latter, based on its physical and chemical characteristics, can determine important qualitative and quantitative aspects of fruit production: for example, fresh wines with a low alcohol content will be obtained from grapes grown on soil with an acid pH. Before planting, it is essential to eliminate weeds and any stones; the rooted cuttings, obtained from adult specimens, are previously kept for a few hours in water. Pruning must be done in spring or at the end of autumn, removing the old shoots and ticking the sturdiest ones to strengthen them.

How to fertilize


Fertilization of the vine is aimed at providing the plant with all the nutrients it needs for proper development. A first fertilization must be performed at the time of implantation; subsequently it is recommended to proceed in autumn, in order to make the plant more resistant in view of the winter season. An extremely important element, which must never be lacking in fertilizers, is nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of the vegetative parts; equally essential is potassium, capable of improving the quality of the fruit. Phosphorus, the third macro-element, can instead be administered to a lesser extent, especially if it is already present in the soil. Fertilizers must also include microelements such as calcium, manganese and magnesium, but only if these are not already contained in the soil.

Vine: Exposure, diseases and parasites


This plant adapts to various environments, but a bright spot hit directly by the sun’s rays is recommended for exposure; it is also essential that there are not too strong winds, which could cause serious damage. Low temperatures can be tolerated as long as they do not drop below -15 ° C. A danger for the plant is represented by fungal diseases, such as powdery mildew, also called albugine, and downy mildew; both cause the formation of necrotic areas, the drying of the leaves and the deterioration of the fruits, and both require, for the care, specific fungicide products based on sulfur or copper. A very annoying phytophagous insect is phylloxera, which attacks the roots and can be eradicated with both natural solutions, such as white mineral oil, and chemicals, or specific insecticides.

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