Pruning of the vine

Vine pruning: when to do it

Like any fruit tree (or any long-lived tree), the vine also needs pruning. There is a good time to do this. Pruning can begin when the vine loses all its leaves and can continue throughout the winter period up to February. Obviously, the intensity of the intervention depends on the type of vineyard we are dealing with. If the vine is weak, the intervention will be heavier, but if the plant is stronger it will be necessary to cut less. For pruning it will always be taken into account that action is taken to lighten the plant in such a way as to get the right amount of sun and the right amount of air. If during the winter you are subject to too cold temperatures, it is advisable to postpone winter pruning as late as possible.

The winter pruning of the vine: how to do it

Before starting it is necessary to obtain the necessary materials to carry out the pruning of the vine. In this case the necessary material is a shears (or pruning shears). Before moving on to the practical act, it is necessary to know that the vine is divided into two heads: fruit heads and wood heads. The wood heads are those branches that do not produce fruit and consequently will be the ones that we will have to cut. The fruiting heads are those that produce the bunch of grapes and therefore we will have to be careful not to cut them. To prune the vine you have to choose between two methods: the “Guyot method” and the “spurred cordon method”. Guyot method: this method is based on cutting old branches while keeping the branch more luxuriant. This branch will subsequently be folded, tied and shortened in order to leave 8 buds. Spurred cordon method: this method is used to force the vine to grow parallel to the ground. This is possible by tying the main shoot to a base. To prune with this method, 4 spurs must be left on the tied shoot and 3 buds are left for each spur.

Diseases of the vine

As a deepening of this article, some diseases of the vine and consequently the methods of intervention will be mentioned. Downy mildew: This is a fungus that usually affects grape plants (although it can affect other plants). This disease affects the leaves, creating yellow spots on the top of the leaf and mold on the back. Over time, this disease can also affect the shoots of our vine causing them to dry out and then fall. As a cure for this disease, the advice is to avoid or reduce nitrogen fertilizations, do treatments with copper and then use specific products. Thrips: these are small insects that disturb our plants. The signs for recognizing thrips attacks are yellow flecks with some darker ones.

The summer pruning of the vine: how to do it

Summer pruning (also called green) is so called because it is carried out in the vegetative period of the vine which varies between May and June or in any case in the warm period of the year. Pruning can be considered to complete the one already done during the winter. It is used to favor the optimal growth of grapes and shoots. It is made up of some operations, some that may not even be carried out according to the policy chosen by the reader. The most common operations that are carried out are: suckling (which consists in cutting the suckers or suckers that come out of the stump or the stem), scacchiatura (in this case it is necessary to cut the shoots that do not produce grapes and consequently are useless) and budding (which consists in removing the axillary shoots).

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