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Topsoil

Topsoil

The soil represents the growing medium of the plants. Whether they are in pots or in the open field, plants take root only on soil composed of a mixture of substances coming from the earth’s soil and to which vegetable elements are added. The soil is, therefore, formed by a set of mineral and vegetable substances that allow the plant to develop and feed. This important crop mix also allows the plant to take root and take root. In gardening and agriculture, soil is also called substrate. It will be the substrate that must be prepared, mixed and fertilized to accommodate the seeds of the plants or adult plants. The spontaneous species grow on natural soils, but not all ornamental and cultivable species are able to grow naturally on already existing soils and soils. This is why in the practice of gardening, mixtures of mineral and vegetable compounds are used that are able to stimulate the growth of the plant, to favor its nourishment and water drainage.

Features


When we talk about soil for plants we essentially refer to a substrate composed of vegetable waste, clayey compounds and inert parts (pebbles or sand) that favor the rooting of the plant, its nourishment and the draining of irrigation water. This soil is usually specially prepared, as in nature it is very difficult to find soils that offer the same mineral and vegetable mixture necessary for plant growth. In fact, there are different types of soils in nature: clayey, calcareous, sandy, acidic, basic and neutral. Each of these soils may be suitable for certain plant species, but not for all. Clayey soils are composed of clay, a substance that makes them very heavy and impermeable, not allowing a good root development of the plant. The calcareous soils, being mainly composed of limestone, they are hard and stony and do not allow the plants to properly absorb the nutrients naturally dissolved in the soil or distributed with fertilizers. Sandy soils are soft, light and facilitate water absorption, but their lack of nutrients makes them unsuitable for healthy plant growth. Acid soils, basic or neutral, are thus defined on the basis of their Ph. Acid soils have a Ph lower than 5, basic ones have, instead, a Ph higher than 5 and neutral ones have it equal to 5. Some plants prefer acid soils and for this reason they are called acidophilic, among these there are also many ornamental species to be cultivated in pots. Other plants love basic soils, which generally correspond to those rich in calcium, while neutral soils are suitable for plants that do not have particular cultivation needs. As you can see, natural soils do not always have all the characteristics to allow a healthy and regular development of plants. This is why, usually, suitably prepared and mixed soils are used.

Types of soil


After having ascertained that not all plants need the same soil, it is necessary to proceed with the choice and preparation of the most suitable one for the species to be cultivated. Soils can be classified according to the stage of development of the plant or the method of cultivation and according to their origin. In the first case we speak of soil for sowing, for potted plants and for adult plants, while in the second we speak of natural soil, soil for cultivation and universal soil. The natural soil is the one already existing in nature: it is the substrate on which many shrub species grow. The soil of many trees can in many cases be used to grow ornamental and garden plants as well. Natural soil (the normal “soil” of trees) can be used for garden plants by adding half of manure to it. Cultivation soil is a very different thing from natural soil, but it does not mean that it is artificial, but simply that it is prepared by adding a mixture, in more or less equal parts, composed of clay, vegetable waste and sand with a draining effect. Cultivation soil is used for a huge variety of plants and can be considered the quintessential soil for gardening. This substrate is fertile, light, soft and well drained. Its composition guarantees a good supply of nutrients to the plant and a good level of drainage. Universal soil is that produced industrially. Also composed of peat, humus, compost and organic waste,

Preparation


The best soil is certainly the one suitable for the type of plant to be cultivated. In this case, if you are an expert and passionate about gardening, you can prepare do-it-yourself soil that can be used for the various stages of cultivation of the plant. The DIY soil can be prepared for planting, transplanting, adult plants, and so on. The composition of the do-it-yourself soil varies according to the time and the reason for use. The soil for sowing is prepared by adding mature manure to the clods of the field previously hoed and freed from the residues of previously cultivated plants. The manure is added to a furrow dug to a depth of about thirty centimeters, in the order of two and a half kilos per square meter. This procedure must be carried out with all the other clods. After fertilizing and covering even the largest clods, you can proceed with sowing. The soil for sowing potted plants must, on the other hand, be composed of a mixture of clay, sand, humus and fertilizer to which macroelements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are added. In some cases, it may be necessary to add peat as well, which, however, is not suitable for all plants. Soils with clay and peat, for example, are not liked by chilli because they harden the substrate causing the roots of this plant to suffocate. In some cases, it may be necessary to add peat as well, which, however, is not suitable for all plants. Soils with clay and peat, for example, are not liked by chilli because they harden the substrate causing the roots of this plant to suffocate. In some cases, it may be necessary to add peat as well, which, however, is not suitable for all plants. Soils with clay and peat, for example, are not liked by chilli because they harden the substrate causing the roots of this plant to suffocate.

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