Tree pruning

Tree pruning: the different types of intervention

Tree pruning can be of different types, depending on the context in which the plant is located and the species to which it belongs. Tree pruning is divided between forced pruning and free interventions. The forced pruning concerns trees in public contexts to eliminate dangerous parts or to make the plant assume a shape suitable for the historical and urban context. Furthermore, these particular tree prunings have the characteristic of giving the plants a well-defined geometric shape so that they have a pleasant aesthetic effect and because they harmonize with the surrounding landscape. On the other hand, free pruning does not particularly interfere with the shape of the tree, but tends to achieve specific objectives (for example, the elimination of old and / or unproductive parts, stimulation of plant growth and robustness, increased productivity in fruit trees). Free pruning interventions are divided into transplant, maintenance, breeding, containment and rejuvenation pruning.

Tree pruning and pruning without cuts

Tree pruning is generally done by cutting entire branches or parts of them. In the first case, we talk about elimination pruning, while in the second it is a shortening pruning intervention. In both cases, pruning cuts must be made so that they are clear and precise; furthermore, they must be carried out using well sharpened and disinfected tools. The cuts must be clean because, if the cortex is not damaged, the healing process is facilitated; on the contrary, incorrect cuts leave residues that can compromise the healing of the cut and the appearance of pathogens that cause the wood to rot. There are, however, accessory prunings that do not resort to cutting branches and buds. The interventions of pruning of trees without cuts are the skew and sagging. The first is to move some branches that prevent others from developing properly, simply by lowering them. The second, on the other hand, consists in bending the branches that emerge isolated from the foliage, giving the plant a hemispherical shape.

Fruit tree pruning: simple and demanding pruning

Fruit tree pruning aims to ensure that the plants have a high quality yield. These interventions must be carried out very carefully and respecting some common rules. For example, the pruning of the branches must not be excessive and, in the final result, the size of the crown must be proportionate to those of the other parts of the plant, in order not to affect the growth and development of the entire tree. It must be remembered that the pruning of fruit trees is different for each species of plant, as each of them requires interventions suited to its characteristics. The trees that are easier to prune are the cherry, apricot, and lotus. These species, in fact, are characterized by very soft branches, which can be cut using garden shears or hacksaws. Pruning of the most demanding fruit trees, on the other hand, concerns the peach and almond trees: the interventions must be more incisive and the branches need more cuts to be completely eliminated.

Tree pruning: The frequency of tree pruning

The frequency of tree pruning varies depending on the technique used. For example, fruit trees and ornamental garden trees do not require forced pruning: pruning is recommended when the plants are young, during the breeding phase, to ensure their correct development. Maintenance and rejuvenation pruning is to be performed only if absolutely necessary (for example, dry and / or unproductive branches, or in case of plant diseases). These interventions can be put into practice at a distance of five or ten years between them and always if the conditions that make them necessary exist. On the contrary, the breeding pruning interventions can be carried out in two different periods (in winter or in summer). In the first case it is carried out when the leaves fall (for deciduous species), or between autumn and spring (for evergreen species). Summer pruning, on the other hand, is carried out in the period between spring and autumn.

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