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Irrigation techniques and times

Walnut is an imposing and majestic tree which, despite being native to the Asian continent, also grows very well in our environments. It has a solid and large trunk and strong roots that develop in considerable depth. The leaves of the tree are usually alternate, bright green and with numerous veins. Around September / October you can harvest the fruits that appear protected by a more green outer rind and a dark brown, with a more internal leathery consistency. Both protect the fruit formed by kernels, its characteristic shape. Walnut is a tree that tolerates low temperatures, but not excesses of heat or cold. During the summer, in fact, continuous and abundant irrigation is recommended, while in the colder periods the quantity of water must be dosed, as due to the low temperature evaporating more slowly, water stagnation could be lethal for the plant and its roots. Irrigation interventions in the periods from June to September must be spaced out by 10 or 15 days and suspended for about 10 days when unsuitable weather conditions occur.

Cultivation techniques


Walnut is a fairly autonomous tree that is also grown to exploit its precious wood. It is a tree that takes root on almost all terrains, preferring the hilly environment, little exposed to humidity and quite fertile. Clayey soils are not recommended because they are poorly draining. The techniques for propagation occur by seed or by grafting. Sowing of walnuts is carried out in the autumn period. The plants will be ready for planting after the second year of cultivation from the moment of sowing. They will be able to undergo the grafting of the chosen variety in the winter period. The planting layouts vary from 10 meters between the rows and the plants in the smaller soils while in the larger ones they increase to 15 meters. As for pruning, we are oriented towards obtaining the so-called green pruning. When the shoots develop up to about 20/25 cm, a first cut is made which decides the length of the stem. At this stage you must try to remove all the suckers, in order to reduce the other branches of at least two leaves from the central axis. The second pruning takes place in July to ensure development of the central shoot.

Fertilization


The Walnut is a tree whose fertilizer administration also and above all depends on needs arising if the plant were to find itself in particular soils lacking some substances. In most cases it is recommended to add chemical fertilizers after the fifth year of age, while in the juvenile period of the plant organic fertilizers are more suitable. As for many other trees, fertilization is suggested every one / two years with mature manure or other organic fertilizers that are integrated with chemical fertilizers based on phosphorus, potassium, microelements and in particular nitrogen, which must act as an energizer. In poorly fertile soils it is necessary to increase the dose and frequency of interventions. Fertilization therefore provides for the addition of a lot of nitrogen up to the fifth year, and subsequently the

Walnut: Pests and diseases


Although the Walnut is a tree that stands out in majesty and grandeur, it does not fail to be, in some cases, the target of parasites or fungal diseases. One of the most feared is undoubtedly the worm, which eludes the controls constituted by the multiple protective layers of the walnut and feeds on it internally. Another very dangerous parasite is the woodworm, which is able to damage the wood as it is capable of digging long and deep tunnels in the trunk of the tree. Anthracnose, on the other hand, is a fungus capable of causing serious damage to the Walnut plant, since in addition to the fruit drop it also causes a sudden and total fall of the leaves of the tree. Furthermore, where the soil is very humid, cold or prey to water stagnation, it becomes the ideal place for root rot, which causes swelling and cancers at the roots or at the base of the trunk bringing the Walnut irreparably to death. These natural dangers, sometimes also inherent in the soil, are defeated by applying prevention treatments and using copper-based products (Bordeaux mixture and oxychlorides).

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