Gardening

How to Plant Macadamia Nut in [8 Steps + Images]

Did you know that the macadamia nut is a very nutritious fruit?

Do you know that most nutritionists include it in their diets?

Not onlycontains a good handful of useful macronutrientsfor our body, but it is also very useful for cholesterol control because it is rich in monounsaturated fats.

If you have land, patience and desire, in this article you will know how to grow your macadamia tree step by step.

Important points for Sowing Macadamia Nut:

  1. When? End of March.
  2. Where? 0 to 1200 masl.
  3. Harvest time? Between 5-12 years.
  4. How do we prepare the land? The ideal pH is between 5.5 and 7.0. It requires fertile soils that are very rich in organic matter. Spread a 2.5 cm layer of compost on the ground.
  5. How do we water? Maintain a regular watering schedule as the tree grows.
  6. How often do we water? Once a week.
  7. How do we sow? Form a mound 5 cm high and place the seed up to 2.5 cm deep.
  8. When do we harvest? When the nuts reach maturity they fall to the ground on their own, so the tree should not be cut directly or shaken to make them fall.
  9. Diseases and pests? Walnut borer (ecditholopha thorthicornis), Leafhoppers, thrips and Botrytis.

Strictly speaking, the macadamia nut is not a nut, but a follicle. However, its cultivation has many similarities with all those nut trees.

They come from the species macadamia tetraphylla, which, under normal conditions, reaches a height of just over ten meters and its leaves extend up to 30 centimeters in length.

When do we grow macadamia?

As it is a fruit tree, it is recommended that it be planted atend of March.

May and early June are also a good time, since it corresponds to the time when all tree species are generally planted.

Flowering occurs 8 months after harvest.

josephhill / Pixabay

Where do we plant?

It is a fruit tree from warm areas, so it is not very tolerant to cold, and it is very tolerant to drought.

The lighting conditions must be total, so it is best to place it in an open field, away from any obstacle that could cause it to shade.

It requires an altitude of 0 to 1,200 meters above sea level.

Its optimum growth temperature varies between 15 and 30 ºC.

How often should it be watered?

Although it is tolerant to droughts, the lack of water can cause slow growth of the fruit, affecting its quality.

Normal watering is once a week.

How do we prepare the land?

It prefers sandy loam, clay loam or clay soils, which retain moisture well, but have good drainage.

Preferably, they should be fertile soils that are very rich in organic matter.

The ideal pH is between 5.5 and 7.0.

How to plant macadamia step by step

1. Clear the ground

It removes weeds and remains of previous crops and all kinds of residues to ensure that your macadamia tree receives the correct amount of nutrients.

All plants must be pulled out by the roots to prevent regrowth.

2. Prepare the ground

Moisten the ground before sowing; This reduces the risk of the seeds being moved by the force of the water.

Fertilize the soil. Spread a 1-inch layer of compost on top of the soil.

3. Put the seeds in the soil

Form a mound 5 cm high and place the seed up to 2.5 cm deep. The mounds will prevent water from pooling near the roots of the plant as it grows.

The sowing of the seed has a special way of being carried out, the part where the peduncle is located has a line that joins up to the middle of the nut and it is the part that must make horizontal contact with the ground.

The seeds will germinate between 1 to 4 months after being sown.

4. Water the plant frequently

Water them with at least a gallon of water to keep the soil well hydrated. After this initial watering, you should maintain a regular watering schedule as the tree grows.

5. Protect the tree and give it good maintenance

Put up a chicken wire mesh to protect the plants while they are growing.

6. Consider grafting

Consider that macadamia latebetween five years and twelve years before beginning to bear fruit.

The fact that you have a strong and healthy tree does not guarantee that it will bear fruit. To make sure it does, you may want to consider grafting.

This should be done when the plants are 2 cm thick and approximately 10 cm tall.

To achieve this, you must place the cutting of a tree that does bear fruit in the trunk of your tree so that they merge and become a single plant.

7. Regularly prune plants

The Macadamia tree is pruned to prevent the development of Y-shaped forks, as it tends to snap easily.

To prune branches, use garden shears to make a clean cut near the base of the branch.

How to harvest macadamia?

When the nuts reachtheir maturity fall to the ground by themselves, so they should not directly cut the tree or shake it to make them fall.

Pests and diseases of macadamia

Some of the most common pests and diseases that affect the macadamia tree are:

Walnut Borer (ecditholopha thorthicornis)

It causes significant losses in production.

For its control, the collection of all the good nuts and the destruction of the damaged nuts is recommended.

sharpshooters

Also called wiggling lice. They affect the foliage causing burns, yellowing and growth disorders.

For its control, effective weed control and not planting near legumes is recommended.

thrips

Thrips are flying insects that leave white spots with black dots on leaves.

To combat them, a combined application of neem extract and potassium soap is recommended.

botrytis

It is caused by humidity and poor ventilation. It is a very aggressive disease if the right humidity conditions are present. The recommended treatment is based on fungicides.

For its prevention, a well-drained soil and good ventilation of the crop are recommended.

How long does the macadamia nut live?

It has a high longevity that leads it to exceed 200 years of life in ideal growing conditions.

How long does the macadamia nut take to grow?

It takes up to 5 years to become an adult tree.

How long does it take to produce fruit?

From the age of 4, it will already be able to start producing fruit, although it may not be so abundant.

After 8 years is that you will begin to see a greater production.

Can it be grown in a pot?

Yes, it can be grown in a pot knowing that its production system will not be as good as when it is planted in the garden.

How many times does the macadamia nut produce fruit?

The production of the macadamia nut tree will depend on the environmental conditions, varying from 1 to 2 times per year.

Should the macadamia nut be pollinated to obtain fruit?

It uses a cross-pollination system where most of the work is done by bees and the least part is the product of the action of the wind.

How cold can the macadamia nut tolerate?

It is able to tolerate mild winters, but does not do well with frost. A temperature below 5° C will already make the tree uncomfortable.

How many macadamia nuts can be planted per hectare?

Due to the characteristics of the tree, it is possible to work on one hectare with a number of specimens ranging from 70 to 150.

What type of fertilizer does the macadamia nut need?

It is a very demanding tree with regard to fertilization, since it does not tolerate planting in poor soils.

To work around this issue it is necessary to apply a first dose of fertilizer before planting and repeat the process after 4 months.

In the following years, it is necessary to fertilize at least twice a year during the warm seasons using organic fertilizers such as compost or bone meal.

How much heat and/or drought can the macadamia nut tolerate?

It does very well in hot summer climates, although prolonged temperatures above 32°C can cause damage.

Drought can only be tolerated when it is a well-established tree, warning that it should not be too long.

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