Gardening

How to Plant Macadamia Nuts in [8 Steps + Pictures]

Did you know that the macadamia nut is a very nutritious fruit ?

Do you know that most nutritionists include it in their diets ?

Not only  contains a good handful of useful macronutrients for our body, but it is also very useful for cholesterol control because it is rich in monounsaturated fats.

If you have land, patience and win, in this article you will know how to grow your macadamia tree step by step.

Important points for Sowing Macadamia Nuts:
  1. When? End of March.
  2. Where? 0 to 1200 masl.
  3. Harvest time? Between 5-12 years.
  4. How do we prepare the land? Theideal pH is between 5.5 and 7.0. It requires fertile soils that are very rich in organic matter. Spread a 2.5 cm layer of compost over the soil.
  5. How do we water? Maintain a regular watering schedule as the tree grows.
  6. How often do we water? Once a week.
  7. How do we sow? Make a mound 5 cm high and place the seed up to 2.5 cm deep.
  8. When do we harvest? When the nuts reach maturity they fall to the ground by themselves, so the tree should not be cut directly or shaken to make them fall.
  9. Diseases and pests? Walnut borer (ecditholopha thorthicornis), Leafhoppers, thrips and Botrytis.

Strictly speaking, the macadamia nut is not a nut , but a follicle. However, its cultivation has many similarities with all those nut trees.

They come from the macadamia tetraphylla species , which, under normal conditions, can grow to just over ten meters in height and its leaves extend up to 30 centimeters in length .

What do we need to grow macadamia?

When should it be sown?

As it is a fruit tree, it is recommended to plant it at end of March. 

May and early June are also a good time, since it corresponds to the time when all tree species are generally planted.

Flowering occurs 8 months after harvest .

Where do we sow?

It is a fruit tree in warm areas, so it is not very tolerant to cold, and is very tolerant to drought.

The lighting conditions must be total, so it is best to arrange it in an open field , away from any obstacle that may cause shade .

It requires an altitude of 0 to 1,200 meters above sea level .

 Its optimum growth temperature varies between 15 and 30 ºC. 

How often should it be watered?

Although it is tolerant to droughts, the lack of water can cause a slow growth of the fruit , affecting its quality.

 Normal watering is once a week. 

How do we prepare the land?

It prefers sandy loam, clay loam or clay soils that retain moisture well, but have good drainage .

Preferably, they should be fertile soils and very rich in organic matter .

 The ideal pH is between 5.5 and 7.0. 

How to plant macadamia step by step

1. Clean the ground

It removes weeds and old crop debris and all kinds of residues to ensure that your macadamia tree receives the right amount of nutrients.

All plants must be pulled from the roots to prevent them from growing again .

2. Prepare the ground

Moisten the ground before sowing; This way you reduce the risk of the seeds moving due to the force of the water.

Fertilize the soil. Spread a 1-inch layer of compost over the soil .

3. Put the seeds in the ground

Make a mound 5 cm high and place the seed up to 2.5 cm deep . The mounds will prevent water from pooling near the roots of the plant as it grows.

The sowing of the seed has a special way of being carried out , the part where the peduncle is located has a line that joins up to the middle of the nut and is the part that must make horizontal contact with the ground.

The seeds will germinate 1 to 4 months after being sown .

4. Water the plant frequently

Water them with a gallon of water minimum to keep the soil well hydrated. After this initial watering, you should maintain a regular watering schedule as the tree grows.

5. Protect the tree and give it good maintenance

Place a wire mesh screen to protect the plants while they are growing .

6. Consider grafting

Consider that the macadamia takes  between five and twelve years before starting to bear fruit. 

The fact that you have a strong and healthy tree does not guarantee that it will bear fruit. To make sure it does, you may consider grafting.

This should be done when the plants have a thickness of 2 cm and a  height of approximately 10 cm .

To achieve this, you must place the cutting of a tree that does bear fruit on the trunk of your tree so that they merge and become a single plant.

7. Regularly prune the plants

The Macadamia tree is pruned to avoid the development of Y-shaped forks , as this tends to tear easily.

To prune the branches, use garden shears to make a clean cut near the base of the branch.

How to harvest macadamia?

When the nuts reach  their maturity fall to the ground by themselves , so the tree should not be cut directly or shaken to make it fall .

Pests and diseases of macadamia

Some of the most common pests and diseases that affect the macadamia tree are:

Walnut borer (ecditholopha thorthicornis)

It causes significant losses in production.

For its control it is recommended the collection of all the good nuts and destruction of the damaged nuts .

Chicharritas

Also called bulging lice . They affect the foliage causing burns, yellowing and growth disorders.

Effective weed control is recommended for its control and not sowing near legumes .

Trips

The thrips are flying insects that leave some spots white with black spots on the leaves.

To combat them, a combined application of neem extract and potassium soap is recommended .

Botrytis

It is caused by humidity and poor ventilation. It is a very aggressive disease if the right humidity conditions are present. The recommended treatment is based on fungicides .

For its prevention, a well-drained soil and good ventilation of the crop are recommended .

Other related articles:
  •  How to plant avocado trees. 
  •  How to plant mango trees. 
  •  How to plant a cherry tree. 
  •  How to plant a bamboo. 
  •  How to plant a cactus. 
  •  How to plant an almond tree. 
  •  How to plant a lemon tree. 
  •  How to plant an apple tree. 
  •  How to plant a papaya. 
  •  How to plant a pistachio tree. 

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