Gardening

Mushroom Cultivation: [Care, Sowing, Irrigation, Substrate and Pests]

The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is a very common ingredient in gastronomy around the world and is also called a mushroom.

In general, this product can be consumed with any type of food, although some people think not.

It is usually a crop that needs special conditions, so it is necessary to know the details to be able to do it correctly and be successful.

For this reason, in this article we give you all the information you need to know to advance with the sowing of mushrooms at home

Important points when sowing Mushroom

  • When? Preferably during the fall or spring.
  • Where? In a dark place with good ventilation and adequate temperature.
  • How do we prepare the land? Promoting the creation of a substrate rich in manure and various nutrients.
  • How should we water? With a sprinkler, promoting that the humidity is always the most optimal possible.
  • How often do you have to water? It depends on the level of humidity that the crop maintains. It should never be exaggerated.
  • What pests and diseases do they have? Spiders and mold are two of their top serious problems.

Characteristics of the mushroom

Mushrooms or Agaricus bisporus (scientific name) is the fruit of a fungus that, naturally, cannot be seen with the naked eye.

This means that while the mushroom has a set and visible size, the fungus that produces it can be much larger.

It is precisely for this reason that when carrying out mushroom cultivation, this characteristic must be considered to determine the volume of production that will be obtained.

In general, the mushroom has a whitish color when young, while it becomes creamier when mature. Its shape is representative, since it looks like a hemispherical or flat hat, depending on the species, with a cylindrical foot.

Likewise, its size and weight vary according to the type, although all known species maintain a mild and delicious flavor.

Where should we plant mushrooms?

Mushroom cultivation should generally be done in cool, dark places, such as tunnels, caves, or cellars. The best thing is to maintain good air traffic, since the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment must be taken care of.

Temperature

Likewise, the temperature must be between 12 and 14 ºC, being able to handle a higher index, between 8 and 18 ºC.

Humidity

Humidity also plays a major role, being necessary to maintain it at an average of 75 to 80%.

It is important to know that fungi do not have chlorophyll, so they cannot absorb nutrients from the soil like plants.

This makes it essential to plant on organic material such as manure, to ensure that it consumes the nutrients it needs.

When should mushrooms be grown?

There is no set season in which mushroom cultivation should be carried out.

However, taking into account the ambient temperature, it can be determined that the best time for this is during the fall or spring.

Both seasons have adequate temperate temperatures to keep mushrooms healthy and able to grow properly. It is recommended that during the winter and summer you take great care of the humidity and that you pay close attention to the temperatures, so that they do not suffer damage.

The cultivation can be done in boxes, special bags for it or directly in dark and cool terrain, as desired.

How do we prepare the land?

It is essential that the substrate in which the fungus is placed is well prepared, since production will be obtained as long as the nutrients exist.

For this reason, it is recommended to prepare a well-balanced compost with nutrients and minerals, which will join the straw to create the perfect site for the fungus.

The compost is required to maintain a temperature of 23 or 24 ºC before the injection of the fungus, since the heat will be necessary for its primary development.

How to plant mushrooms step by step?

  1. Once you have the prepared substrate, it is convenient to proceed to inject the mycelia (hyphae that are responsible for creating the structure of the fungus).
  2. Subsequently, the temperature should be kept warm to encourage the development of mycelia and white roots.
  3. This will be so for the first two weeks, making it easier for the process to be carried out properly. It can be achieved with the use of a heating pad.
  4. After this time, it is time to let the environment cool down properly and for this it is necessary to remove the heating pad.
  5. Now the entire environment must be covered with a thin layer of soil or moss, ending with the coverage of the entire perimeter with a thin cloth.
  6. Ten days later, the cloth is removed and the entire field is moistened twice a day with a sprinkler , so that the first shoots appear.

What care does the mushroom need?

To have a healthy harvest, it is necessary not to give them light, since this would kill the fungus and all the work done would be lost.

Humidity is extremely important, so you always have to take care of it, although it is not recommended to water too much.

How to water mushrooms

To avoid these problems, it is best to do it with a sprayer, taking into account that the substrate is always kept moist.

Temperature is also a priority issue, as well as ventilation. Both aspects must be taken care of closely.

When harvesting them, it is recommended to do it in the way that a screw is removed, avoiding disturbing the surrounding mushrooms.

The storage

The storage of the product must also be done in the dark, to avoid problems with its preservation.

What pests and diseases does it have?

Excess moisture and mold

One of the main problems that mushroom cultivation can present is excess humidity, which encourages the appearance of mold.

This is difficult to eradicate, prevention being the most important step of all.

Insects: mites and spiders

As for pests, the mushroom usually has problems with some mites, nematodes and other insects.

Among them are the white, blond and red spider, dipterans and beetles. It is necessary to be careful with all of them, since they affect their direct development.

Bacterial spot and dry bubble are two important diseases of mushrooms.

The first causes stains on the hat of the same, while the second causes deformations that can lead to the «fruit» rotting.

Mushrooms are not only delicious, but also very healthy and that is why they are among the favorites of many people.

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