Gardening

Acer Campestre: [Cultivation, Irrigation, Associations, Pests and Diseases]

The acer campestre is a type of shrub, with a straight trunk, dense and spreading branches that has a bushy crown and can reach up to 20 m.

This plant belongs to the Aceraceae family and the Sapindaceae order.

It is deciduous, that is, it loses its leaves annually and receives the common names of minor maple, common maple, escarro, acere, escarrón and moscón.

Important points when planting Acer campestre

  • Where to sow? Medium light and semi shade.
  • When? In autumn or late winter.
  • How do we prepare the land? Removed, removing weeds. With normal gardening substrate, poor, dry and compacted soils.
  • How do we water? With drip.
  • How often do we water? In summer, 1 times a week or when the substrate dries. The rest of the year spaced irrigation.
  • Plagues and diseases? Resistant to attack by pests and diseases. Excess moisture makes them sensitive to fungi.

Characteristics of the Acer campestre

It has its origin in Europe, Asia and North Africa and also in the Iberian Peninsula, where specimens of acer campestre with leaves with acute lobes have been observed. Acer campestre is the most commonly depicted maple leaf on Gothic and Romanesque capitals in Europe.

Its wood is light brown to reddish-white, occasionally streaked with brown in the heartwood, homogeneous, compact, moderately heavy, very hard, difficult to bend, elastic and takes polish well.

The wood of the acer campestre is used to make cutlery, mill wheels, tobacco pipes, farming implements, skittles and other turning works, laminated and veneered wood, squares, gun butts and walking sticks.

When to sow the Acer campestre?

The planting of the acer campestre should be carried out in autumn and at the end of winter.

Where to plant an Acer campestre?

The country maples in their natural state appear on the banks of rivers, on shady slopes or as part of other tree formations such as gall oaks, oak groves, beech, holm oak or fir forests.

They are also part of the hedges and shrub borders, being rare to find them forming stands or small copses. It reaches 1,200 m altitude, withstands the cold well and grows above all in fresh, limestone soils.

This species can live up to 150 years. It can be planted in sites with medium light or semi-shade, in cool areas near rivers. It withstands the cold of winter without flinching, even temperatures below -20ºC. And tolerate environmental pollution.

How to prepare the land?

The acer campestre can adapt to all types of soils, including very alkaline, very acidic, dry or very compacted sites and terrain.

Although the acer campestre plant can be planted in any soil, the ideal for it are limestone soils.

Like all maples, it likes soils that are somewhat deep and cool, with some moisture in the summer.

If the field for the cultivation of acer campestre is dry, it is recommended to water at least once a week in summer.

How do we water the Acer campestre?

The acer campestre has a great resistance to drought. However, in very dry climates it is necessary to water the plant once a week and during the rest of the year more spaced irrigations.

To water the acer campestre plant, it is recommended to do it moderately, waiting for the soil to dry before watering again.

The watering of the countryside should always be done at dusk or first thing in the morning and place very little amount of water.

How do we plant an Acer campestre step by step?

  1. Planting of acer campestre can be done easily by grafting, but it is also possible to do it from seed sown in spring.
  2. As it is a type of shrub, the acer campestre should be planted directly in the place where the crop will be grown.
  3. Prepare the land for cultivation, although it can be planted in any type of soil, but it must have good drainage. Sow the seeds or graft deep so that the roots can achieve a wide and safe development.
  4. Place the plant in a moderately sunny, moderately shaded place so that the planting takes place in optimal conditions. Fertilize the plant at the end of sowing. The new fertilizer will be made at the end of winter in the first three years and will be sufficient.
  5. In its condition as a bush, the acer campestre will look for the necessary nutrients for its life, since it will have the capacity to do so, if the soil is moderately good.
  6. The acer campestre plant does not usually require pruning if it is grown as a tree, but it tolerates it well in the case of hedges; This operation is carried out at the end of winter once the danger of frost has passed.

What favorable associations does it have?

The association of crops of compatible plants produces benefits with respect to their cultivation separately, in addition to the use of light, water and/or nutrients.

Because it is a shrub that provides shade, the acer campestre plant could be considered to be placed with other crops that require shade for planting and production.

What pests and diseases attack the Acer campestre?

The acer campestre is a shrub of the type resistant to pests and diseases. However, they do not tolerate waterlogging and moisture can cause fungal diseases.

How long does the country maple live?

The acer campestre is a long-lived tree that can live for 150 years.

How long does it take to grow acer campestre?

It is slow growing and could take more than 10 years to reach its highest level of height.

How long does it take to produce fruit?

Under certain favorable conditions, the acer campestre will be able to bear fruit 4 years after planting.

Can it be grown in a pot?

It can be kept in a pot in the first phases of life, but it is not advisable because its roots will feel very limited.

How many times does the acer campestre produce fruit?

They produce fruits only once a year in the summer, occupying the maturation of the same when autumn is entered.

Should acer campestre be pollinated to obtain fruit?

The flowers of the acer campestre need to be pollinated in order for the fruits to set. Accept two ways for this process.

The first is the anemophilous which takes advantage of the force of the wind to transport pollen.

The second is the entomophilous one that requires the intervention of an insect to carry out this task.

How cold can acer campestre tolerate?

It is a species resistant to cold and frost. It is able to live down to -20 ° C without problems.

How many country acers can be planted per hectare?

Due to its dimensions, the number of specimens recommended per hectare is 100 units.

What kind of fertilizer does field maple need?

Granulated mineral fertilization is the most recommended for acer campestre. You can also work with well decomposed organic matter.

How much heat and/or drought can field maple tolerate?

It does not have problems with heat, as long as it is accompanied by frequent and appropriate watering. However, it will be able to withstand an eventual drought.

Bibliography and references

  • Encyclopedia My first knowledge about Plants, Snakes and Conservation. (1961). Spanish edition by Dr. Frank Thompson. Grolier Publisher Incorporated New York. Printed in Mexico.

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